The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an intensive period of mindfulness (Vipassana) meditation training on executive function, and the ways that this mediated psychological wellbeing. The results indicated that mindfulness training may not necessarily lead to enhanced internal attention-switching, but has significant implications for enhanced working memory capacity and psychomotor performance, although, which appears to have a positive impact on self-regulation, manifesting in a number of improvements in affect. These results support the efficacy of mindfulness as an intervention with potential application in a wide range of areas of psychological research and practice. Future research is warranted which attempts to further tease apart the complex mechanisms underlying mindfulness, which the present investigation has identified. In particular, there is a need for studies with larger sample sizes, and which incorporate both performance measures and longitudinal designs.