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Glossary of terms in general psychology

Dr. Simon Moss

Glossary of terms in general psychology

Abstinence violation effect: The inclination of some individuals to overreact to minor lapses from their attempt to abstain from some substance, such as alcohol, with elevated levels of guilt and resignation. These feelings can provoke relapse.

Acetlycholine (Ach): An amine--a class of small organic molecules--that acts as a neurotransmitter throughout the nervous system. For example, this neurotransmitter acts at the neuromuscular junction.

ACTH: An acronym for adrenocorticotrophin hormone. This hormone is released form the pituitary gland in the brain in response to CRF, a peptide that is released from the hypothalamus. ACTH then activates the release of adrenalin and cortisol, as well as other corticosteroids, from the adrenal gland.

Adrenal cortex: The outer segment of the adrenal gland, which is located near the kidneys. When stimulated by ACTH, a hormone released by the pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex produces cortisol.

Adrenal medulla: The inner segment of the adrenal gland, which is located near the kidneys, which releases adrenaline or epinephrine.

Adrenaline: A catecholamine that acts as a neurotransmitter. Adrenaline, which is synthesized from noradrenaline, is also called epinephrine.

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH): Hormone released by the anterior pituitary, which initiates the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex--which, in turn, activates bodily processes that prepare individuals to redress threats and stressors.

Agnosia: The inability to recognize objects, despite intact sensory skills, and can manifest in any sensory modality. In other words, a deficit in perception rather than sensation. Agnosia often arises from damage to the posterior parietal cortex.

Agraphia: Absolute impairment in the ability to write, even though motor skills are intact.

Alpha-2 NE auto receptor : A receptor that binds noradrenaline. In particular, noradrenaline is released from neurons in several sites of the brain, such as the locus coeruleus. The alpha-2 NE auto receptors appear on the same neurons. The noradrenaline then binds to these receptors. Consequently, the release of noradrenaline is inhibited. This auto receptor, thus, contains the release of noradrenaline. Panic disorder might correspond to factors that impede this auto receptor, such as caffeine, generating excessive noradrenaline, and manifesting as the physical sensations of panic.

Amine: One of the three major classes of neurotransmitters, together with amino acids and peptides. Amines, which include acetylcholine, adrenaline, dopamine, histamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, are small organic molecules containing a nitrogen atom, derived from amino acids.

Amino acids: One of the three major classes of neurotransmitters, together with amines and peptides. Like amines, amino acids, which include GABA, glutamate, and glycine, are small organic molecules containing a nitrogen atom. Peptides and proteins are chains of amino acids.

Ammon's horn: A sheet of neurons, which together with the dentate gyrus, constitutes the hippocampus, the axons of which extend to the fornix. Ammon's horn comprises four divisions: CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4.

Amygdala: A complex of nuclei in the anterior temporal lobe--which comprises the basolateral nuclei, the corticomedial nuclei, and the central nucleus--involved in emotion and various forms of learning and memory. Amygdala means "almond shaped".

Anome: A feeling in which individuals feel alienated--lost, without any sense of identity or roots--which is sometimes a precursor to suicide.

Anomia: An impairment in the capacity to identify the correct word.

Anterior pituitary: Together with the posterior pituitary, one of the two main lobes of the pituitary. The anterior pituitary is a gland, which releases many hormones that ultimately regulate the gonads, thyroid, adrenal glands, and mammary glands. The anterior pituitary, which releases ACTH for example, is regulated by the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons in the periventricular zone of the hypothalamus. The pituitary hangs directly below the hypothalamus.

Antidiuretic hormone: see vasopressin.

Anti-image correlation matrix: Often used in factor analysis, a table that presents the correlations between all the variables after controlling the other variables. The diagonal values present the measures of sampling adequacy--in which values that exceed .5 indicate the corresponding variable should be included the factor analysis.

Aphasia: An impairment of some facet of language even when auditory or speech systems are intact. Common forms include Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, and conduction aphasia.

Apraxia: An impairment in the ability to plan and to execute a learned voluntary movement smoothly despite intact muscle use and comprehension.

Arachnoid membrane: Together with the dura mater and pia mater, represent the meninges--membranes that cover the brain, protecting this organ from the overlying bones. This membrane, the middle layer of the three membranes, resembles a spider web. The arachnoid membrane is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid space, which contains cerebrospinal fluid. The arachnoid membrane is virtually contiguous with the dura mater. If blood vessels in the dura mater are ruptured, blood collects in this region.

Arcuate fasciculus: A bundle of axons that connect Broca's and Wernick's areas--two regions associated with language.

Astrocyte: The most prevalent form of glial cell in the brain--cells that facilitate the functioning of neurons, which fills most of the space between neurons. These cells regulate the chemical content of this space outside the neurons. For example, these cells remove neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft.

Autoreceptor: A receptor in the axon terminal that is receptive to the same neurotransmitter that is released by this terminal. These autoreceptors provide a range of functions, one of which is to inhibit the release or synthesis of further neurotransmitters.

Axon: Long branching segment of a neuron, designed to conduct nerve impulses or action potentials, usually away from the cell body or soma.

Barbiturate: A depressant drug, which binds to GABA receptors and increases the duration in which channels remain open in the presence of GABA--the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Examples include Amobarbital, Pentobarbital, Phenobarbital, and Secobarbital.

Bartlett test of sphericity: Statistical test, often applied before researchers conduct a factor analysis, to ensure the correlation between variables overall tends to differ from zero. This test is very sensitive, however, when the sample size is high.

Basal forebrain complex: Several nuclei in the cerebrum, near the basal ganglia, which comprise the medial septal nuclei and basal nucleus of Meynert and might be involved in learning and memory. Some of the first cells to die in Alzheimer's Disease are found in this complex of nuclei.

Basal ganglia: A collection of connected sets of cells in the basal forebrain, comprising the striatum--which includes the caudate nucleus and putamen--globus pallidus, and subthalamus. These cells are also connected to the substantia nigra in the midbrain. The striatum receives input from the cortex, and the globus pallidus transmits output to the thalamus, which in turn then projects to the motor cortex, forming a loop.

Basolateral nuclei: Together with the corticomedial nuclei and the central nucleus, constitutes one of the three main parts of the amygdala, which is involved in emotions and learning. Information from each of the sensory systems project onto the basolateral nuclei, and the axons from this region connect to the central nucleus, which in turn projects to the hypothalamus--to affect the autonomic nervous system--and the periaqueductal gray matter--to affect behavior. Furthermore, axons from the baslateral nuclei project onto the cerebral cortex--presumably to affect subjective feelings.

Bender-Gestalt Test: A psychological test, which comprises nine geometric designs on cards, intended to assess the capacity to draw objects from memory. The participant is instructed to draw the design after each card is presented individually.

Benzodiazepine: A depressant drug, which binds to GABA receptors and increases the frequency with which channels are opened in the presence of GABA--the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Beta-blockers: Cardiac medication, intended to curb the effects of noradrenaline on the peripheral nervous system. Examples of Beta blockers are inderal and tenormin& these medications are often consumed two hours before an experience that could evoke anxiety. These substances curb the physiological responses that coincide with anxiety.

Beta-endorphins: The natural opiates that, when released, can reduce pain and promote a sense of satisfaction, sometimes deficient in individuals with OCD. Beta-endorphins increase levels of dopamine, underpinning the experience of reward.

Bias blind spot: The tendency of individuals to perceive themselves as relatively less susceptible to cognitive biases than a typical person (Pronin, Lin, & Ross, 2002).

Boston Naming Test: Neuropsychological tests that evaluates the capacity of individuals to name pictures of objects. Various cues are presented as well. The test can sometimes be used to localize cerebral damage.

Broca's aphasia: A disturbance in language in which individuals experience difficulties in speaking or repeating words but in comprehension.

Broca's area: Region in the frontal lobe that elicits difficulties in speaking and repeating words--called Broca's aphasia--when damaged.

Brown and Forsythe test of homogeneity of variance: Alternative to the Levene's test, intended to assess whether the variability of values differs significantly across groups. A significant value might indicate heterogeneity of variance, which violates an assumption of ANOVAs. To conduct the test, the absolute difference between each value and the median of the group is computed. These absolute difference are then subjected to a typical ANOVA. This test is more robust to violations of normality that is the Levene test.

CA1: A region of Ammon's horn--a sheet of neurons in the hippocampus--that receives input from CA3.

CA3: A region of Ammon's horn--a sheet of neurons in the hippocampus--that receives input from the dentate gyrus, which is another region of the hippocampus.

Capgras delusion: A distorted belief in which individuals feel that a relative, often a spouse, has been replaced by an imposter who looks identical. This belief might represent a symptom of schizophrenia or dementia but can also follow traumatic brain injury.

Catapres : Medication that curbs social anxiety. This medication, actually called clonidine hydrochloride, activates the alpha-2 NE auto receptor. This receptor then inhibits the release of noradrenaline in the brain. Many of the physical symptoms of social anxiety diminish.

Catecholamines: Collection of neurotransmitters, including dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline.

Caudal: Refers to the posterior region of some structure-or the tail.

Central nucleus: Together with the corticomedial nuclei and the basolateral nuclei, constitutes one of the three main parts of the amygdala, which is involved in emotions and learning. Information from each of the sensory systems project onto the basolateral nuclei, and the axons from this region connect to the central nucleus, which in turn projects to the hypothalamus--to affect the autonomic nervous system--and the periaqueductal gray matter--to affect behavior.

Central sulcus: The sulcus that divides the frontal lobe of the cortex from the parietal lobe of the cortex.

Cerebrospinal fluid: Clear, salty liquid that is produced by the choroids plexus in the ventricles--cavities inside the brain. cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid also flows into the subarachnoid space, via apertures near the cerebellum, into the subarachnoid space between the pia mater and arachnoid membrane--two of the meninges that cover the brain. This space enables the brain, in essence, to float inside the head.

Choice motivation orientation: Distinguishes between individuals who maximize each choice--that is, always strive to select the optimal alternative from a set of options--or satisfice--that is, to select the first alternative that exceeds some level of acceptability.

Choroid plexus: Tissue in the ventricles of the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid--a salty, clear liquid.

Clanging: Occasional manifestation of thought disorder in schizophrenia, in which individuals rhyme sentences unnecessarily, such as "I feel better now, as I watch a cow".

Coefficient of determination: Square of the correlation r between two variables, representing the percentage of variance in one variable that is explained by the other variable.

Cognitive assessment system: Test of intelligence that is applicable to children and adolescents from 5 to 17. The test, sometimes called the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System, demands 40 to 60 minutes to complete. The test examines planning, attention, simultaneous processing-that is, the capacity to integrate information-and successive processing-that is, the ability to complete acts in the correct order. The test comprises 13 subtests, such as repeating sets of words in order.

Cognitive behavioral therapy: Form of therapy that involves changing cognitions and behaviours. To treat panic disorder, for example, patients are first informed about the physiological responses to panic& the inclination to catastrophize is highlighted and challenged& events that incite panic are identified& more adaptive thoughts in response to these events are considered and practiced& the recognition that fear is unpleasant but sometimes adaptive is emphasized.

Cognitive specificity hypothesis: In the context of cognitive behavioral therapy, the proposition that different affective disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are associated with a distinct pattern of automatic thoughts. For example, depression is associated with thoughts that relate to pessimism (e.g., "Nothing ever works out for me anymore", loss (e.g., "I've lost the only friends I have"), and self deprecation (e.g., "I'm a social failure". Anxiety is associated with physical danger (e.g., "I might be trapped") and threats (e.g., "Something awful is going to happen").

Coherence therapy: Psychotherapeutic system that assumes that models or constructs of reality, many of which are unconscious and intuitive, evoke coherent symptoms of mood, thought, and behavior. Thus, seemingly irrational symptoms reflect orderly and sensible constructions of the self and world. The aim of therapy is to access these personal constructs emotionally, experientially, and directly rather than analytically, which facilitate the dissolution or refinement of these schemas.

Commissure: A collection of axons that connect the left and right sides of the brain. The largest commissure is the corpus callosum.

Communality: Often calculated in the context of factor analysis, an index that represents the extent to which the variance of one variable is explained by the other variables.

Conduct disorder: Mental disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, in which individuals often engage in acts that violate the rights of other citizens, such as aggression towards people, cruelty towards animals, vandalism of property, and other behaviors, such as theft and deceit.

Conduction aphasia: Form of aphasia--that is, a language impairment--associated with damage to the arcuate fasciculus, which is a bundle of axons that connect Broca's and Wernick's areas. The principal deficit is the inability to repeat the words that someone else verbalizes.

Confirmation bias: The inclination of individuals, after they reach a decision or conclusion, to focus on information that supports rather than conflicts with this position.

Constructional apraxia: An impairment in the ability to assemble, to draw, or to copy some object accurately, even when simple movements are intact.

Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS): A measure, which comprises 48 items, that assesses three main forms of coping style: task oriented, emotion oriented, and avoidance.

Cortico-trophin releasing hormone: Hormone released by the parvocellular neurosecretory neurons of the hypothalamus and, within 15 or so seconds, initiates the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone from the anterior pituitary, which then amplifies the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex within a few minutes.

Cortisol: A hormone that is released by the adrenal cortex. This hormone, a member of the steroid family, mobilizes stores of energy, acts on neurons in the central nervous system, and inhibits the immune system.

Cotard delusion: A distorted belief in which individuals feel they are dead and do not exist. Sometimes, these individuals feel they have lost internal organs. This delusions might emerge from a disrupted connections between the fusiform face areas, which recognize faces, and regions that relate these faces to emotions.

Countertransference: In psychoanalysis, the process in which the analyst developed feelings towards a client--feelings they experienced with someone who seemed similar to this person.

Covariation bias: The tendency of individuals to overestimate the covariation or correspondence between adverse events, such as electric shocks, and hazardous stimuli, such as spiders (Tomarken, Mineka, & Cook, 1989).

CRF: Also called the corticotrophin release factor, peptide released from the hippocampus in the brain. This peptide increases the release of ACTH in the pituitary gland, ultimately eliciting elevated levels of adrenaline and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Cortisol stimulates many of the responses that epitomize stress, but also curbs the subsequent release of CRF.

Cross-lagged designs: Design in which the independent and dependent variables are both measured at two or more times& the direction of causality can more readily be ascertained if appropriate statistical tests are utilized.

Decussation: Crossing of a fiber bundle from one side of the brain to the other side of the brain. For example, in the visual system, stimuli on the left side project onto the nasal retina of the left eye--that is, closer to the nose--and the temporal retina of the right eye--that is, away from the nose. The optic nerves from the left nasal retina cross from the left to the right and converge with information from the temporal retina on the right at the optic chiasm. Hence, the left visual field is primarily represented in the right brain--and vice versa.

Delirium tremens: Symptoms that follow withdrawal from chronic alcoholism, involving profuse sweating and rapid heart beat, mental confusion or delirium, disorientation, and restlessness, sometimes coupled with terrifying hallucinations.

Dentate gyrus: A sheet of neurons, which together with Ammon's horn, constitutes the hippocampus. These neurons receive input from the entorhinal cortex.

Developmental dyspraxia: Developmental disorders, in which the initiation, coordination, or performance of actions is deficient-even though other sensory or motor impairments, such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or multiple sclerosis have been excluded. Two forms have been distinguished: ideational, or the difficulty of planning a sequence of movements, and ideo-motor, of the difficulty of executing this plan.

DFBETA: An index, often applied in multiple regression analysis to identify influential cases, which are participants who affect the results inordinately. In particular, DFBETA is the change in the B coefficient that emerges after that case is deleted. For smaller samples, DFBETA values that exceed reflect cases that might be too influential. For larger samples values that exceed 2 / square root of n reflect cases that are might be too influential, where n is the sample size.

Dienchepalon: Region of the brain below the cerebrum and above the midbrain, which comprises the thalamus and the hypothalamus. Dienchepalon literally means "Between brain".

Diversification heuristic: When individuals need to choose a series of items, like chocolate bars, and various options are available, like Mars Bars and Cheery Ripe, they tend to choose each alternative to a similar extent. In other words, they choose a broad variety, unless these choices are distributed over a longer time.

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Dopa: A chemical precursor of dopamine. In particular, the enzyme dopa decarboxylase facilitates the conversion from dopa to dopamine. Furthermore, the enzyme tyrosine hyroxlyase facilitates the conversion from tyrosine to dopa. Dopa traverses the blood-brain barrier and is thus administered to increase the levels of dopamine to treat Parkinson's disease.

Dopamine theory of schizophrenia: Proposition that schizophrenia involves excessive reactivity of dopamine receptors in the brain. This proposition is supported by evidence that neuroleptics, which block dopamine receptors, can alleviate symptoms of schizophrenia.

Dopamine: A transmitter that, together with noradrenaline and adrenaline, represent the catecholamines. Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase facilitates the conversion from dopamine to noradrenalin.

Double bind communications: A form of communication in which two incompatible messages are presented, which is assumed to provoke disordered thinking. An example might be a mother who shows discomfort when a child approaches but also scolds the child for maintaining a distance.

Duchenne smile: A smile that is typically genuine in which the corners around the eyes tend to crinkle and the mouth is turned up. These muscular actions, especially the wrinkling around the eye, are difficult to control voluntarily.

Dura mater: Together with the arachnoid membrane and pia mater, represent the meninges--membranes that cover the brain, protecting this organ from the overlying bones. The dura mata, Latin for hard mother, is the outermost layer--a tough, leathery, and inelastic membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

Durability bias: The tendency of individuals to overestimate the duration their negative affect is likely to last in response to adverse events (Gilbert, Pinel, Wilson, Blumberg, & Wheatley, 1998).

Dysgraphia: An impairment in the ability to write, even though motor skills are intact.

Eigenvalues: In the context of factor analysis, an index that represents the extent to which a factor explains variance across the variables. The eigenvalue, also called the latent root, can be calculated by squaring the factor loadings and then summing these answers. An eigenvalue below 1 indicates that factor explains less variance than a single variable.

Empathy bias: The tendency of individuals to be more likely to believe anyone with whom they feel a sense of empathy (e.g., Weir & Wrightsman, 1990).

Endorophin: A collection of endogenous opioid peptides, the actions of which resemble the effects of morphine, including the diminution of pain by binding to opioid receptor.

Enteric division: Together with the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems, one of the three main divisions of the autonomic nervous system. This system innervates the digestive organs, consisting of two networks: the myenteric plexus and the submucuous plexus. Enteric literally means "little brain". Although primarily autonomous, input from the brain, via the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, can also regulate the enteric division.

Epinephrine. See adrenaline.

Equamax rotation: Method, often used in factor analysis, to simplify the interpretation of factors. This method, a form of orthogonal rotation, is a compromise between quartimax and varimax rotation but is used infrequently.

Exocytosis: Refers to the process in which chemicals are released from vesicles within cells to space outside the cells, as the vesicle membrane fuses with the cell membrane.

False consensus effect: The tendency of individuals to overrate the extent to which other individuals share their values and beliefs.

Finger agnosia: Inability to determine which of the fingers has been stimulated.

Fluoxetine: Antidepressant drug, with a trade name of Prozac, that inhibits the reuptake of serotonin.

Fornix: A bundle of axons, originating in the hippocampus, looping around the thalamus, and terminating in the hypothalamus. This bundle, thus, connects the hippocampus to the hypothalamus.

Fregoli delusion: A distorted belief in which individuals feel that everyone they encounter is actually the same person, but in disguise. They often feel persecuted by this person. This delusion usually coincides with executive dysfunction.

Fusiform face area: Region of the brain that facilitates the recognition of faces and, possibly, other familiar objects. This region, which is slightly larger in the right hemisphere, is located on the ventral surface of the temporal lobe on the fusiform gyrus, near the parahippocampal place area.

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA): An amino acid that acts as the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA is synthesized from glutamate when the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase is available. GABA is synthesized only by the neurons that release this amino acid and is not used to construct proteins.

Ganglion cells: Cells in the retina that receive input from the bipolar cells and project information via the optic nerve to the optic chiasm at the base of the brain.

Ganglion: Collection of neurons in the peripheral nervous system.

Globus pallidas: Part of the basal ganglia that is involved in motor control. In particular, cells in the globus pallidus inhibit cells in the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Cells in the ventral lateral nucleus excite cells in the supplementary motor area, which regulate the control of movement. Inhibition of the globus pallidus, through cortical activation via the putamen, hence facilitates activation of the supplementary motor area to govern motor control.

Glutamate: An amino acid--and the precursor to GABA, a key inhibitory neurotransmitter. Glutamate, in contrast, is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Furthermore, glutamate is synthesized from glucose and other precursors.

Glycine: An amino acid, which acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Furthermore, glycine is synthesized from glucose and other precursors.

Gray matter: A term that refers to any collection of cell bodies of neurons in the brain. That is, collections of cell bodies appear grey.

Greedy groups: A term developed by Coser (1974), to denote collectives in which members must maintain unmitigated loyalty& they cannot allocate some of their resources to other groups and cannot depart from this group.

Grooved pegboard: Neuropsychological test, designed to measure performance in fine motor tasks.

Gyrus: A bump or ridge that lies between two sulci or grooves in the cerebrum.

Heywood case: In structural equation modeling, an instance in which the estimated variance of an error term for a measured variable is less than 0--which is, of course, implausible. To redress this issue, the measured variable can be deleted or the error variance can be constrained to exceed 0.

Homoscedasticity: An assumption of some statistical tests, such as multiple regression, in which the variance of one variable is independent of the level of some other variable. To illustrate, the variability in height across individuals should be the same across the spectrum of age groups. In the context of multiple regression, the variance of residuals should be independent of the predicted values.

Hypophysiotropic hormone: A peptide hormone, such as cortico-trophin releasing hormone, released into the blood by the hypothalamus to affect the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary.

Hypothalamus: Region of the brain that is immediately below the thalamus, along the walls of the third ventricle, comprising three zones: lateral, medial, and periventricular zones. The hypothalamus regulates the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the release of many hormones. In addition, the hypothalamus regulates the autonomic nervous system.

Imposter syndrome: Psychological syndrome in which individuals experience feelings of phoniness and unwarranted respect--concerned that someone might discover they do not deserve the recognition they deserve (Harvey & Katz, 1985).

Inferior colliculus: A nucleus in the midbrain from which auditory signals project to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, before reaching the auditory cortex. The inferior colliculus itself is enervated by a collection of neurons, called the lateral lemniscus, which ascend from the superior olive. The inferior colliculus also sends neurons to the superior colliculus, to facilitate the integration of auditory and visual information. Colliculus means "mound".

Insular cortex: A region of the cortex, between the temporal lobe and parietal lobe, that is located below an area called the opercula. The insula is integral to the experience of emotions, the processing of tastes, the memory of procedures, and the control of motor responses as well as interpersonal behavior. Negative emotions, such as disgust, seem to activate the insula.

Intermittent explosive disorder: Mental disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, in which individuals exhibit sudden uncontrollable anger, disproportionate to the context-sometimes regarded as a deficiency in impulse control.

Internal capsule: A collection of axons that relay information between the diencephalons--that is, the thalamus and hypothalamus--and the cerebrum.

Just world bias: The inclination of individuals to be more like to perceive someone unfavorably if this person is portrayed as a victim (see Lerner, 1980).

Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT): A broad intelligence test, assessing both crystallized and fluid intelligence, in anyone 11 years or older. The test, which can be completed with 1 to 1.5 hours, comprises six subtests. One subtest involves comprehension questions after listing to a recording. Another subtest involves learning pictures that represent words, called rebuses, and then interpreting a sequence of rebuses.

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II): A battery of tests, suitable for ages 3 to 18, to assess intelligence. The test can be completed within 25 to 55 minutes if the Luria neuropsychologcal model-a model that excludes verbal ability-is applied and 35 to 70 minutes if the Cattell-Horn-Carroll approach is applied. The subtests include face recognition, story completion, expressive vocabulary, and about 20 other possible alternatives.

Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT): Verbal and non-vernal intelligence test that can be completed within 15 to 20 minutes, applicable to all ages from 4 to 90. The subtests include vocabulary and non-verbal matrices, designed for rapid estimates of intelligence.

Labeling theory: The proposition that a label that is assigned to someone affects the subsequent behavior. Individuals labeled as delinquent, for example, were more likely to subsequently engage in criminal activity (Cicourel, 1976).

Lateral geniculate nucleus: Nucleus that comprises 6 layers of cells, located in the dorsal thalamus, that receives information from the retina via the two optic tracts and relays this information to the visual cortex via the optical radiation. This nucleus is bent around the optic tract, and geniculate means "bent like a knee". Two of the layers, called the magnocellular LGN layers, contain larger cells. Four of the layers, called the parvocellular LGN layers, contain smaller cells. The lateral geniculate nucleus also receives input from the visual cortex and brain stem.

Leiter international performance scale (LEITER-R): A nonverbal intelligence test, for individuals between 2 to 20 years of age. Neither the administrator nor participants needs to speak. The test comprises two main batteries: reasoning and visualization, which spans 40 minutes or so, as well as attention and memory, which spans about 35 minutes. Subtests include spatial memory, paper folding, figure rotation, and so forth.

Levene's test of homogeneity of variance: Test that assesses whether the variability of values differs significantly across groups. A significant value might indicate heterogeneity of variance, which violates an assumption of ANOVAs. To conduct the test, the absolute difference between each value and the mean of the group is computed. These absolute difference are then subjected to a typical ANOVA.

Magnocellular neurosecretory neurons: Largest of the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus in which the axons extend to the posterior pituitary. These cells release oxytocin, which stimulates the ejection of milk from the mammary glands as well as provides other maternal functions and vasopressin, which regulates blood volume and salt concentration. These hormones are released directly into the capillaries of the posterior pituitary.

Mahalanobis distance: Index that is used to identify multivariate outliers--individuals whose values differ markedly from everyone else in the sample. This index equates to the distance of some observation from the mean center of the other observations.

Measure of sampling adequacy: Index, often used in the context of factor analysis, which represents the extent to which a variable can be predicted from the other variables. In addition, the index can be calculated for all the variables, roughly representing the extent to which, on average, each variable can be predicted from the other variables. The index ranges from 0 to 1, with values above .5 indicating the extent to which the variables are correlated is acceptable for factor analysis. This index, however, increases with sample size and the number of variables.

Measurement invariance: In structural equation modeling or factor analysis, the condition in which the factors loadings remain steady across time or contexts.

Medial geniculate nucleus: A nucleus, located in the thalamus, that projects auditory informant to the auditory cortex. The medial geniculate nucleus receives information from the inferior colliculus--a nucleus in the midbrain.

Medulla: Together with the cerebellum and pons, represents of the three main parts of the hindbrain, which is located below the midbrain and immediately above the spinal cord.

Meninges: Three membranes--the dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater--which cover the brain to protect this organ from the overlying bones. Meninges is derived from the Greek word for covering.

Mere ownership effect: The tendency of objects to be evaluated more favorably by owners than by other individuals (Beggan, 1992).

Mesolimbic pathway: This pathway in the brain begins in the midbrain--in particular, the ventral tegmental area--and proceeds through to regions like the nucleus accumbens, the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex. The neurotransmitter in this pathway is dopamine. The pathway underpins responses to rewarding stimuli.

Missing at random: In statistics, implies the probability of missing data is related to some other variable. Nevertheless, the observed values of some variable are a random sample from the population of values at each level of the other variable. For example, the proportion of individuals who answer some question, such as their weight, differ between males and females. However, within each sex, the observed values of some variable are genuinely a random sample from the population of values.

Missing completely at random: In statistics, implies the probability of missing data is unrelated to any other variable. For example, the proportion of individuals who answer some question, such as their weight, might be unrelated to gender, age, and other factors. In this instance, the observed values of some variable are genuinely a random sample from the population of values.

Modification indices: In structural equation modeling, reflects the reduction in chi-square, and hence the improvement in fit, if a specific coefficient is estimated rather than fixed. Modification indices are calculated for all the relationships in the model that were not estimated. A high modification index implies that, perhaps, that relationship should be estimated.

Naltexone: Drug that reduces the positive feelings that opiates and alcohol evoke, which ultimately curbs cravings. Naltrexone is sold as ReVia.

Need for cognitive closure: A cognitive style, in which individuals prefer order, structure, predictability, and clarity rather than uncertainty, ambiguity, and novel ideas (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994)

Neglect: Limited or no awareness on one side of space, contralaterial to the lesion. Neglect can be specific to one or more sensory modalities.

Neologisms: Occasional manifestation of thought disorder in schizophrenia, in which individuals contrive words.

Neuroleptics: Drugs that are intended to alleviate psychotic symptoms, which include Thorazine, Mellaril, and Prolixin, as well as block dopamine receptors.

Nucleus: Spherical structure inside cell bodies that contains the chromosomes. This term also refers to a distinct mass of neurons in the brain, such as the medial geniculate nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventral cochlear nucleus, the superior olive, as well as the inferior and superior colliculus.

Object relations theory: A psychodynamic theory, focusing on the effect of internalized representations of parents and other attachment figures. Therapists who apply this perspective strive to separate their personal values, preferences, and experiences from the attitudes and obligations that someone else, such as a parent, has introjected. Hence, the individuals the motivation to fulfill the duties and expectations that someone else imposes diminishes.

Omission bias: Perception that harm caused by the omission of some act may be less immoral than is harm caused by the commission of some act (Baron & Ritov, 2004).

Oppositional defiant disorder: Childhood mental disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, in which children act with more defiance and disobedience than considered normal towards authority figures.

Optic chiasm: A structure at the base of the brain, in front of the pituitary, at which optic nerves from the right and left eyes converge.

Optic nerves: A bundle of axons that transmit information from the ganglion cells in the retina to the optic chiasm--at the base of the brain in front of the pituitary.

Optic tract: Collection of axons that project information from the optic chiasm, at the base of the brain, to the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus before reaching other centers such as the visual cortex.

Optimism bias: The tendency of individuals to perceive themselves as relatively immune to various risks, at least relative to a typical person (Weinstein, 1989).

Outcome bias: The tendency of individuals to rate the rationale of a person as more suitable when the outcome is favorable. For example, individuals are more inclined to rate the decision to shoot an intruder as unsuitable, rather than suitable, if police later discover the supposed intruder did not intend to steal anything (Baron & Hershey, 1988).

Oxytocin: Hormone released by the magnocellular neurosecretary neurons in the hypothalamus, which initiates uterine contractions before childbirth, stimulates the ejection of milk from the mammary glands, as well as provides other functions. This hormone is released directly into the capillaries of the posterior pituitary.

Parahippocampal gyrus: Region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus, involved in the encoding and retrieval of scenes rather than faces or objects. The region is active when individuals observe scenes like landscapes or rooms. The right parahippocampal gyrus might identify the social context as well.

Parapnasias: Incorrect use of words or word combinations.

Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons: Neurons in the periventricular zone of the hypothalamus that release hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones, called hypophysiotropic hormones, then regulate the anterior pituitary, which in turn regulates many systems in the body.

Peptides: Large molecules, which entail a chain of amino acids. Peptides, which include somatostatin, substance P, and thyrotropin releasing hormone, are one of the three major classes of neurotransmitters, together with amines and amino acids.

Perforant path: Bundle of axons that connect the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus--a sheet of neurons in the hippocampus.

Periaqueductal gray matter: Region in the midbrain that receives information from the central nucleus of the amygdala as well as the medial hypothalamus--arguably emotional information--and this region then provokes emotional behavior. Stimulation of this region, for example, can provoke aggressive behavior. Stimulation can also reduce pain& axons from the periaqueductal gray matter extend to the raphe nuclei, which in turn projects to the dorsal horns of the spinal cord to depress pain or nociceptive neurons.

Periventricular zone of the hypothamalmus: Together with the lateral and medial zones, constitutes of the three main sections of the hypothalamus--a region below the thalamus, located alongside the third ventricle. This zone comprises the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which regulates circadian rhythms, cells that regulate the autonomic nervous system, and cells, called neurosecretory neurons, which regulate the pituitary.

Peter principle: The proposition that, in any hierarchical organization, individuals continue to be promoted until they can no longer competently fulfill the responsibilities of their role.

Pia mater: Together with the arachnoid membrane and dura mater, represent the meninges--membranes that cover the brain, protecting this organ from the overlying bones. The pia mata, Latin for gentle mother, is the innermost layer--and is a thin membrane. Many blood vessels flow alongside this layer. The pia mater is separated from the arachnoid membrane by the subarachnoid space, which contains cerebrospinal fluid.

Pica: A medical disorder, in which individuals experience an appetite for products that are not nutritional, such as soil, soap, ash, and chalk, or an excessive appetite for specific ingredients, such as raw rice. Pica is Latin for magpies, which reputedly eat anything-and the disorder has been observed in dogs. Pica might be caused, at least partly, by mineral deficiencies.

Positioning theory: A framework, often applied in social construction analysis, which examines how individuals assume rights and duties--and how these rights and duties bias the interpretation of their behavior. Individuals might position themselves or someone else. If someone is positioned as stupid, for example, their perspectives on complex matters are disregarded. Typically, once a position is established, their actions are interpreted as consistent with archetypal narratives. They might, for example, position themselves as a heroic leader of a cause, which elicits a series of assumptions.

Posterior parietal cortex: The posterior or tail end of the parietal cortex. This region, primarily in Brodmann's areas 5 and 7, underpins the integration of visual and somatosensory information as well as facets of attention.

Posterior pituitary: Together with the anterior pituitary, one of the two main lobes of the pituitary. The hormones oxytocin and vasopressin, which are released by the magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus are directly released into the capillaries of this posterior pituitary. The pituitary hangs directly below the hypothalamus.

Potency index: In discriminant function analysis, an index that represents the extent to which a variable discriminates the groups--collapsing across all significant discriminant functions. The variables that generate the highest variables discriminate the groups most effectively.

Preconscious: From a Freudian perspective, contents of the mind in which individuals are oblivious but of which they could be aware if they focused their attention appropriately.

Presenile dementia: Forms of dementia in which the age of onset is before 65.

Press's Q statistic: In discriminatory function analysis, a measure of the extent to which the classifications predict group membership better than chance. Q statistics that exceed the chi-square critical value at 1 degree of freedom imply the classifications outperform chance.

Primary visual cortex: Area in the occipital lobe of the cortex, towards the back of the brain, which processes the visual scene. Also known as V1, the striate cortex, and Brodmann's area 17. One of the middle layers, IVC, primarily contains neurons covered with spines, called spiny stellate cells. The other five main layers contain neurons called pyramidal cells--some of which project information to the cortex, superior colliculus, pons, and thalamus. This area receives input from both the magnocellular and parvocellular cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus.

Principal factor analysis: One of the extraction method in factor analysis in which factors are extracted from a modified correlation matrix. In particular, the communalities--which is the extent to which a variable is explained by the other variables--replace the 1s in the diagonals. As a consequence, the extracted factors explain only common variance among the variables--not the variance that is specific to a variable.

Prodromal phase: In schizophrenia, the period in which functioning declines, but preceding the first acute psychotic episode. During this period, individuals might become less interested in social activities, less inclined to maintain an acceptable physical appearance, and less likely to fulfill their daily responsibilities.

Psychopathology Checklist Revised: A checklist to predict risk of offenses. The assessor conducts a structured interview, rating characteristics such as pathological lying and superficial charm.

Putamen: Together with the caudate nucleus, constitutes the striatum--a part of the basal ganglia, which is involved in motor control. Diverse areas in the cortex, including prefrontal, motor, and sensory areas, excite the putamen, which in turn inhibits the globus pallidus, another nucleus in the basal ganglia. These cells in the globus pallidus inhibit cells in the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus. Cells in the ventral lateral nucleus excite cells in the supplementary motor area, which regulate the control of movement. Thus, ultimately the putamen excites cells in the supplementary motor area, essentially focussing activation to this region of motor control.

Pyromania: An impulse to ignite fires as a means to relieve negative emotional state, such as agitation, or to foster positive emotional states, such as relief. This term does not apply to someone who begins fires for any material or instrumental gain. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, often used to treat depression, are sometimes administered to individuals who exhibit pyromania.

Quartimax rotation: Method, often used in factor analysis, to simplify the interpretation of factors. This method, a form of orthogonal rotation, is designed to ensure that each variable generates a high factor loading on one factor but a low factor loading on the other factors. Specifically, this method maximizes the variance of factor loadings in each row of the factor matrix. The problem with this method is that many of the variables tend to load on one factor only.

Raphe nuclei: A cluster of neurons, which release serotonin and span from the medulla in the hindbrain to the midbrain. These neurons project diffusely across the nervous system. For example, stimulation of the periaqeductal gray matter affects the activation of these raphe nuclei, which in turn project to the spinal cord and inhibit the pain or nociceptive neurons to alleviate pain.

Rapid Risk Assessment of Sex Offense Recidivism: A tool that predicts the likelihood of future sex offending in individuals who have been convicted for sex offenses.

Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: An intelligence test, applicable to anyone older than 5, intended to measure abstract ability or the capacity to recognize relationships and to apply analogies. The test, which comprises 60 items, can be completed within about 45 minutes. Each item comprises a figure with a missing piece. Individuals need to select one of a set of alternative pieces that could complete this figure, applying a principle that is not articulated to participants.

Relational memory: Process in which multiple and simultaneous sources of stimulus information--such as particular scenes, sounds, smells, emotions, and goals--are connected together. Conceivably, the hippocampus, together with other structures in the medial temporal lobe, facilitates the formation of these relational memories.

Renin: Enzyme released by the kidneys when the salt concentration of the blood is elevated. This enzyme concverts angiotensinogen, a protein generated in the liver, to angiotensis I, which then divides into angiotensis II--a peptide that activates the subfornical region of the brain, which in turn activates the lateral zone of the hypothalamus to increase thirst.

Residual phase: In schizophrenia, period in which behavior returns to the level of functioning that was demonstrated during the prodromal phase--which is the period before an acute psychotic attack. Often, individuals demonstrate apathy, difficulties in clear thinking, and odd ideas.

Residual: In the context of multiple regression, the difference between the observed value of someone on the dependent variable and the predicted value--derived from the equation that multiple regression generates.

Rett syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder in which verbal skills are limited, stereotypic hand movements are enacted repeatedly, head growth decelerates, and seizures are common. Rett syndrome ensues after the gene MECP2, located on the X chromosome, is mutated and mainly affects girls.

Rey Complex Figure Test: A neuropsychological test, which involves drawing and subsequent visual memory. Individuals are instructed to draw a complex figure and then memorize this figure.

Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scale (RIAS): An intelligence test, applicable to all ages from 3 to 94, comprising two subtests that assess verbal intelligence and two subtests that assess non-verbal intelligence. A verbal and nonverbal supplementary memory test can also be administered. The entire package can be completed within about 30 to 35 minutes.

Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test (RIST): This intelligence test, a derivation of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales, is a brief screening test, which can be used for several purposes and can be completed within 10 to 15 minutes. The test is applicable to individuals aged from 3 to 94. The RIST comprises two subtests: a verbal and nonverbal subtest. The verbal subtest is called Guess What, and the nonverbal subtest is called the Odd Item Out.

Rogers Criminal Responsibility Scale: An instrument that characterizes the impairment of an individual at the time this person committed a crime.

Roll diffusion: From a psychodynamic perspective, a state of confusion, uncertainty, and susceptibility to suggestions--rather than clarity and direction--that might evolve from the failure to develop a firm identity during adolescence.

Sanism: The inclination of individuals to apply negative stereotypes to individuals who are diagnosed as mentally ill, highlighting one of the complications that diagnosis can provoke.

Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors: Antidepressant drugs that impede the reuptake of serotonin by the neuron, thus increasing the activity of this neurotransmitter.

Self image bias: The tendency of individuals to overrate the importance of traits that represent their strengths (Lewicki, 1983).

Separation-individuation: The process by which the infant acquires an identity that is distinct from the mother.

Serotonin: Amine neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of mood and sleep. The amino acid, tryptophan, is converted to 5-HTP when the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase is available, and 5-HTP is converted to serotonin when 5-HTP decarbooxylase is available. Serontonin, also called 5-HT, can improve mood.

Sinister attribution error: The tendency of individuals to feel suspicious towards a person who is evaluating their behavior (Kramer, 1994).

Sleep terror disorder: A sleep disorder in which individuals often experience sleep terrors--terrifying panic attacks that are more intense than nightmares, culminating in abrupt awakenings in which children may not immediately be able to recognize their parents.

Slosson Intelligence Test: This broad, but efficient, test of intelligence comprises six domains of items: comprehension, vocabulary, auditory memory, similarities and differences, as well as quantitative. The test can be completed within 10 to 20 minutes and is applicable from ages 4 to 65. The latest versions can be applied to individuals with visual impairments.

Social cognitive theory: Theories that emphasize the role of thinking, such as expectancies, and learning by observation, called modeling, in human behavior. For example, according to scholars who espouse social cognitive theories, phobias might be learning by watching the fearful reactions of other individuals to specific events.

Splitting: A tendency in individuals to perceive themselves, or everyone else, as comprising a blend of both positive and negative features--and instead only demonstrating awareness to positive or negative features at any one time.

Spotlight effect: Tendency of individuals to overestimate the extent to which their actions and appearance are the focus of attention (Gilovich, Medvec, & Savitsky, 2000).

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB5): A comprehensive test of intelligence and cognitive abilities, applicable to individuals aged 2 and above. The test can be conducted within about 45 to 60 minutes. This edition includes some key features. For example, apart from assessing overall intelligence, verbal intelligence, and performance intelligence, five other factors are generated: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory. Correlations with other key intelligence test, such as the WISC-III, the WAIS-III, range from .78 to .84.

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood: A comprehensive measure of intelligence and cognitive ability for children. This test comprises a full battery for children aged between 2 and 6, which can be completed within 30 to 50 minutes, and an abbreviated battery for children aged between 6 and 7.3, which can be completed within 15 to 20 minutes. The battery includes a Test Observation Checklist, which enables practitioners to record behaviors that have been shown to affect test performance.

Startle response: An set of actions, such as tensing of the neck and blinking of the eye, that is evoked automatically by a sudden intense stimulus. The startle response evolved to protect individuals from injury and to maintain vigilance.

Status quo bias: The inclination of individuals, when choosing between two options with equivalent outcomes, to prefer the alternative that involves the least level of change (Samuelson & Zeckhauser 1988).

Subarachnoid space: Space between the pia mater and arachnoid membrane--two of the meninges that cover the brain--which contains cerebrospinal fluid, enabling the brain, in essence, to float inside the head.

Subdural hematoma: Collection of fluid and blood between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane--two of the meninges that cover the brain. Blood can collect in this region when blood vessels that flow through the dura mater--the outermost membrane--are ruptured. Subdural hematoma can compress parts of the brain, culminating in damage.

Subfornical organ: Region in the brain that activates the release of vasopressin from the magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus to elevate water retention. This region also activates the lateral zone of the hypothalamus to promote thirst. When salt concentration is high, the kidneys produce rennin, which ultimately increases the production of angiotensin II--a peptide hormone that activates the subfornical organ.

Superior colliculus: A structure in the tectum--dorsal part of the midbrain below the dienchepalon--that received input from the retina and directs saccadic eye movements.

Superior olive: A nucleus, located in the caudal or tail region of the pons, that projects auditory informant to the inferior colliculus--information that is then transferred to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, before reaching the auditory cortex. The superior olive receives information from the ventral cochlear nucleus.

Suprachiasmatic nucleus: Part of the periventricular zone of the hypothalamus--a region below the thalamus--that received input from the retina to synchronize circadian rhythms with the daily cycle of light and day.

Tardive dyskinesia: A disorder, often ensuing from continuing use of antipsychotic medication, characterized by involuntary movements of the face, neck, trunk, hands, or feet.

Tectum: Together with the tegmentum, one of the two main structures of the midbrain, immediately below the dienchephalon. The tectum, which is above the tegementum, comprises the inferior and superior colliculus, which process information from the ears and eyes respectively. Tectum means "the roof" in Latin.

Tegmentum: Together with the tectum, one of the two main structures of the midbrain, immediately above the hindbrain. The tegmentum, which is below the tectum, comprises the substantia nigra, a black complex, and the red nucleus, which are both involved in movement.

Thalamus: Region of the brain--in particular, the dienchepalon--that is immediately above the hypothalamus. The thalamus is regarded as a region that relays information between the cortex and various midbrain or hindbrain regions. For example, auditory information projects from the inferior colliculus in the midbrain to the auditory cortex via the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. Visual information projects from the retina to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus. Delta rhythms, which correspond to various stages of sleep, are produced by cells in the thalamus.

The nucleus accumbens: A collection of neurons in the ventral striatum, involved in reward, pleasure, laughter, addition, and placebo effects. These neurons, together with the olfactory tubercle, represent the ventral striatum.

Think-aloud protocols: The explicit reports of participants, describing the mental processes or strategies they applied while completing some task.

Tolerance: An index, often computed in the context of multiple regression, which represents the extent to which an independent variable is explained by the other independent variables. This index is the inverse of the variance inflation factor. Tolerance values below .10 or so might be redundant. The tolerance is equal 1 minus the R squared value that is calculated when that independent variable is regressed against the remaining independent variables.

Trail Making Test: A test in which participants are instructed to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence within a limited period of time.

Transactive memory: The process in which individuals in teams developed a shared model to encode, retain, and retrieve information. In this process, each member is responsible for memorizing only part of the gamut of information.

Transference: In psychoanalysis, the process in which clients attach feelings to a therapist--feelings they had experienced with another person during an emotional conflict.

Transporter: A protein that transfers neurotransmitters across membranes.

Tricyclics: Antidepressant drugs that reduce the uptake of noradrenaline and serotonin and thus increase the activity of these neurotransmitters.

Tryptophan: Amino acid that is a precursor to serotonin--a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of mood and sleep. Tryptophan is converted to 5-HTP when the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase is available, and 5-HTP is converted to serotonin when 5-HTP decarbooxylase is available. This amino acid is derived from the diet.

Type A personality: A personality style, characterized by a competitive demeanor, a sense of time urgency, and hostility.

Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test: An intelligence test that is applied to individuals who cannot be assessed with verbal methods. Examiners rely on eight hand and body gestures, all of which are relatively universal across cultures, to administer the tests. The test is applicable to children and adolescents, from ages 5 to 17, and demands 10 to 45 minutes depending on the version that is used. Three batteries have been compiled: a screening battery, a standard battery, and an extended battery-used for diagnostic purposes. The test does demand proficient and practice to administer and comprises several response modes, such as paper and pencil, manipulating objects, and pointing.

Variance inflation factor (VIF): An index, often computed in the context of multiple regression, which represents the extent to which an independent variable is explained by the other independent variables. This index is the inverse of the tolerance. VIF values that exceed 10 or so indicate the independent variable might be redundant.

Varimax rotation: Method, often used in factor analysis, to simplify the interpretation of factors. This method, a form of orthogonal rotation, is designed to ensure that each factor generates a high factor loading on one variable but a low factor loading on the other variables. In particular, this method maximizes the variance of factor loadings in each column of the factor matrix--to ensure that most of the loadings are close to -1, 0. or 1. Perhaps the most commonly used orthogonal rotation method.

Vasopressin: Hormone released by the magnocellular neurosecretary neurons in the hypothalamus, which regulates blood volume and salt concentration. This hormone, also called antidiuretic hormone, facilitates the capacity of kidneys to retain water and curb urine production when salt concentrations are elevated. This hormone is released directly into the capillaries of the posterior pituitary.

Ventral lateral nucleus: A nucleus of the thalamus that transmits information from the basal ganglia and cerebellum to Area 6--which, together with Area 4, represents the motor cortex.

Ventricular system: Caverns and canals inside the brain, that store cerebrospinal fluid--a clear, salty liquid. This system includes the lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, the cerebral aqueduct, and the fourth ventricle.

Vermis: Region that is located at the midline of the cerebellum and separates the two hemispheres. Vermis is latin for "worm".

Wald statistic: In logistic regression analysis, an index that represents whether or not a B coefficient differs significantly from zero, analogous to the t value in multiple regression analysis. The Wald statistic conforms to a chi-square distribution& the square root of this value conforms to a z distribution.

Warm glow heuristic: The tendency for the objects or individuals that someone likes to seem more familiar (Benoit, 2003).

Waxy flexibility: A feature associated with catatonic schizophrenia, in which the limbs of individuals remain at the angle at which they are moved someone else.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test (WAIS-III or WAIS-IV): One of the most prevalent and comprehensive intelligence tests, applicable to individuals aged between 16 and 89. The test comprises 7 verbal subtests and 7 performance subtests. Examples include vocabulary, similarities, digit span, letter number sequencing, picture completion, block design, digit symbol coding, symbol search, object assembly, and picture arrangement.

Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC-III or WISC-IV): One of the most prevalent and comprehensive intelligence tests for children, applicable to individuals aged between 6 and 16. The test comprises 10 core subtests and 5 additional subtests. Examples include vocabulary, similarities, digit span, letter number sequencing, picture completion, block design, symbol search, and object assembly.

Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III): One of the most prevalent and comprehensive intelligence tests for young children, applicable to individuals aged between 2 and 6. The test comprises 14 subtests, such as block design, matrix reasoning, vocabulary, object assembly, similarities, picture completion, comprehension, symbol search, and picture concepts.

Wernicke's disease: Brain disorder that is characterized by disorientation--even difficulty balancing while walking--and confusion, associated with alcoholism.

White matter: Reference to any collection of axons in the brain. When the brain is first cut open, axons appear white.

Wide Range Intelligence Test: A batter of four tests of cognitive ability: vocabulary, verbal analogies, matrices, and diamonds. To complete the diamonds subtest, for example, participants must construct specific designs using pieces shapes as diamonds. The test can be completed with 30 minutes and covers all age ranges from 4 to 85, providing measures of crystallized and fluid intelligence.

Wisconsin card sorting task: A task that is intended to assess the capacity to plan and organize effectively. Participants are instructed to sort a deck of cards--cards with geometric shapes of various colors--into various piles. Participants are not told whether each pile should correspond to one color, shape, or number of symbols. However, they are told whether they are correct or incorrect after each card is placed in a pile. Gradually, they begin to sort the cards into correct piles. Once ten consecutive cards are placed in the right pile, another rule is constructed. Individuals with prefrontal damage tend to rely on a previous rule--perhaps by sorting cards into piles with the same color--even when this rule no longer applies.

Woodcock Johnson Test of Cognitive Skills: Measure of general and specific cognitive functions, applicable to anyone from 2 and older. This test, which can be completed within 60 to 70 minutes, generates scales of verbal ability, thinking ability, cognitive efficiency, general intellectual ability, and other scales. This measure is often administered together with the Woodcock Johnson Test of Achievement.

Working memory: A cognitive system that enables individuals to store and to transform information in memory. This system, which underpins reasoning and comprehension, was originally assumed to comprise three main elements: the phonological loop, the visuo-spatial sketchpad, and the central executive.

Zeigarnik effect: The inclination to experience intrusive thoughts about a goal the individual had previously pursued but never fulfilled.

References

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