The regression discontinuity design is a research design that overcomes some of ethical problems with experimental designs-but also overrides some of the limitations to the internal validity of quasi-experimental designs. This design was developed by Campbell and colleagues (Campbell & Stanley, 1963& Cook & Campbell, 1979) as well as promulgated by Trochim (1984, 1990).

To illustrate, consider some researchers who want to examine whether or not training in meditation reduces anxiety at work. To apply a regression discontinuity design, the researcher would:

- First, measure participants on some factor, called the assignment variable, to identify which individuals should be subjected to the treatment or intervention. In this instance, researchers might assess the anxiety of individuals before the treatment
- Second, allocate participants to the treatment or control condition, depending on whether they exceed some threshold on the assignment variable. In this example, researchers might assign the 20 most anxious individuals to the condition that receives training in mediation. The remaining 20 individuals are assigned to the control condition
- Third, after the treatment or intervention, researchers measure participants on some outcome that is applicable to everyone. In this example, the anxiety of individuals one week after the treatment might be measured.
- Some typical results appear in the following figure. A discontinuity shows the treatment was effective. A form of multiple regression analysis is conducted to identify whether or on this discontinuity is significant.

This design is applicable whenever two conditions are fulfilled (see Trochim, 1984). First, the decision as to whether participants should be allocated into one condition or another condition depends on whether they exceed some threshold on a variable. Second, the outcome variable is equally applicable to all participants, regardless of the condition to which they were assigned,

Experiments, in which individuals are randomly assigned to conditions, are often considered to be an exemplary design. To illustrate, consider a researcher who wants to examine whether or not training in meditation reduces anxiety at work. To conduct an experiment-sometimes called a randomized control design-some system, such as random numbers, are applied to allocate participants into one of two conditions: meditation or control. After the training is completed, the anxiety of all participants is assessed.

Suppose anxiety is lower in the participants who received training in meditation. This finding implies that training in meditation must reduce anxiety. The participants in each condition are likely to be equivalent on all other factors-such as age, performance, and health. These factors, therefore, could not be responsible for the difference between the two conditions.

Three complications to experiments can arise. First, the experiment can be unethical. That is, the researcher must withhold the treatment, in this instance the training in mediation, from half the participants. This delay in the treatment of relaxed or happy participants is not necessarily a problem. However, this delay in the treatment of anxious participants might amplify their emotional concerns.

Second, although related to this issue, the experiment is often infeasible. In many situations, some participants have already received some treatment or intervention, such as training in meditation. If researchers confined their studies to experiments, valuable pools of data would need to be disregarded.

Third, factors that are confounded with the treatment or intervention could also affect the outcome. Training in meditation, for example, also involves disruption from the usual work routine, which alone could affect anxiety.

The regression discontinuity design overcomes two of these three limitations.

In particular, in regression discontinuity design, individuals who appreciably need some treatment are assigned to the condition in which the intervention is offered. For example, individuals who experience severe anxiety are assigned to the condition in which training in meditation is offered. The ethical concern with delaying the treatment is thus circumvented,

Second, the design utilizes data that might otherwise be disregards. That is, this design is applicable to many contexts. Researchers might, for example, want to examine whether:

- Rejection in the context of job applications influences wellbeing. In essence, individuals who performed inadequately during the application process, such as failed an ability test, are assigned to the condition in which participants are rejected. The individuals who performed effectively during the application process, such as passed an ability test, are assigned to the condition in which participants are accepted
- Leadership training improves confidence. Often, employees who performed successfully at work, as gauged during the performance appraisals, receive the training. Other employees do not receive the training.

In these examples, whether or not individuals are subjected to the intervention-the job rejection or the training, for example-depends on the performance on another variable. Hence, the regression discontinuity design applies.

However, like experiments, the regression discontinuity design cannot overcome the limitation that other factors might be confounded with the treatment or intervention. Control conditions that are more similar to the treatment could overcome this issue.

The regression discontinuity design also circumvents many of the limitations that constrain the legitimacy of traditional quasi experimental designs. In quasi experimental designs, individuals are not randomly assigned to conditions. For example, perhaps individuals in some organizations receive training in meditation and individuals in other organizations do not receive this training. Any differences in anxiety between the two conditions cannot necessarily be attributed to the meditation. Perhaps the individuals who received the meditation are assigned more enjoyable jobs, have developed better friends, and so forth.

In these traditional quasi experimental designs, the variables that determine in which condition individuals are assigned are not measured. Hence, these variables cannot be controlled statistically. In the regression discontinuity design, the variable that determines in which condition individuals are assigned is measured-and thus can be controlled statistically (Trochim, 1984). In short, although strictly a quasi experimental design, the regression discontinuity design can generate more informative conclusions.

During the first phase, researchers need to decide which variable should determine whether participants assigned to one condition or the other condition. Consider again the study in which researchers want to ascertain whether training in meditation alleviates anxiety. Several options are available. First, participants could be assigned to the treatment condition if they exhibited above average levels of anxiety on some measure. In other words, the allocation variable might be the same as the outcome variable, but merely measured before the treatment begins.

Second, participant s could be assigned to the treatment condition if they expressed dissatisfaction towards their job-perhaps in a recent survey. Hence, the allocation variable might be correlated with, but different to the outcome variable. Indeed, the allocation variable might be uncorrelated with the outcome variable (see the example that referred to social security numbers by Trochim, 1990).

Third, participants could be assigned to the treatment condition if the CEO of this organization feels the individuals are stressed. That is, the decision to allocate might be derived from a subjective variable. In this instance, however, the subjective variable must be quantified, even roughly. The CEO, for example, could assign a rating to each individual, representing the extent to which the person seems stressed.

2. Measure individuals after the treatment

Participants are then allocated to one of the two conditions, and the treatment is administered. The outcome of interest then needs to be assessed. The key consideration is to ensure the outcome measure is applicable to all participants.

For example, a traditional measure of anxiety would probably be acceptable. However, a measure of feelings while meditating would not be applicable to the individuals who had not received training in meditation.

This example might be contrived, but similar complications can arise in many settings. Consider a researcher who wants to examine whether promotions at work improve performance. The researcher would then need to generate a measure of performance that applies to individuals at different levels in the organization-which can be a difficult task.

3. Conduct the multiple regression analysis.

Once the data is collected, a specific variant of multiple regression analysis would need to be conducted, as delineated by Trochim (1984, 1990). To demonstrate this analysis, suppose the allocation variable is job satisfaction. That is, only individuals with low levels of job satisfaction receive training in meditation. In addition, anxiety, which is measured after the intervention, is the outcome variable. The results are presented in the following figure. To show this discontinuity is significant, the researcher needs to:

- Transform the allocation variable, such as job dissatisfaction, by deducting the threshold level. For example, in SPSS, the researcher could select transform and then compute. The target variable could be called dissatisfaction_r. The numerical expression could be dissatisfaction - 3. In this instance, the threshold is 3.
- Ensure you include a variable, perhaps called treatment in which 1 correspond to participants who received the intervention and 0 correspond to the participants who did not receive the intervention.
- Construct a variable that represents the interaction-or product between the transformed allocation variable and the treatment variable. In SPSS, the researcher could select transform and then compute. The target variable could be called dissatisfaction_treatment. The numerical expression could be dissatisfaction_r * treatment.
- Construct a variable that represents the square of both the allocation and treatment variable. For example, SPSS, the researcher could select transform and then compute. The target variable could be called dissatisfaction2. The numerical expression could be dissatisfaction_r * dissatisfaction_r. The square of treatment could be computed in the same way
- Using the same process, construct variables that represent the following interactions: intervention squared x treatment, intervention x treatment squared, and intervention squared x treatment squared.
- Conduct a regression equation in which the independent variables include all the factors that were constructed in the previous bullet points. You can also include other control variables, such as age, as independent variables. The dependent variable is the outcome variable, such as anxiety.
- After you conduct this regression analysis, you can repeat the analysis, but after removing some of the independent variables that are not significant, such as dissatisfaction_r * treatment. However, do not remove key control variables-or terms that are entailed in other terms. For example, do not remove dissatisfaction_r squared if you want to include dissatisfaction_r squared x treatment.

In the final regression analysis, if the treatment variable is significant, the discontinuity has been established. Furthermore, sometimes the treatment variable interacts with the allocation variable. In other words, the benefits of the treatment depend on values on the allocation variable.

Conclusions derived from the regression discontinuity design may not be accurate in some contexts. First, conclusions will be misleading if any non-linear relationship between the allocation variable and the outcome variable are not included in the regression equation. The following figure, which derives from an example presented by Cook and Campbell (1979), illustrates this problem. Suppose the multiple regression included linear terms-but no squared or cubic terms. The regression analysis would thus assume the equation corresponds to the horizontal doted lines in this figure. That is, the analysis would uncover a discontinuity.

However, suppose the relationship actually corresponds to the unbroken, curvy line. This equation does not seem to imply a discontinuity. That is, no sudden change in values arises precisely at the threshold-and therefore the pattern of findings cannot be ascribed to the intervention.

A multiple regression analysis with linear terms would thus generate a misleading conclusions. A multiple regression analysis with squared and cubic terms, like dissatisfaction_r * dissatisfaction_r * dissatisfaction_r, might override this problem. Fortunately, this complication is not common.

Second, compared to experimental designs, regression discontinuity designs are less powerful. That is, the sample size needs to be increased to ensure significant effects are uncovered (see Reichardt, Trochim, & Cappelleri, 1995).

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