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Glossary of terms in terrorist psychology

Dr. Simon Moss

This glossary defines some of the terms and labels, including the names of academics, terrorist organizations, and leaders of these organizations, that are often used in discussions on terrorist psychology. In addition, some religious terms are also defined.

8 Blacks Prayer Hall: A Muslim prayer hall, formerly a Snooker palace, located behind the 7-Eleven store on Boundary Road, North Melbourne. The five men, accused in the terror plot at Holsworthy Barracks, all attended this hall.

Abdul Azzam: Teacher at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah and former mentor to Osama bin Laden, who disseminated militant perspectives, such as "No negotiations, no conferences, and no dialogues". He had earlier been a member of the Egyptian Brotherhood. He fought, with the financial support of Osama bin Laden, against the Soviets in Afghanistan. He and two of his sons were killed in 1989, during the last months of this war.

Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad: A convert to Islam who fired at a military recruiting center in Little Rock, killing one solider, with a semiautomatic rifle. He was, according to the family, a happy teenager, who later studied Arabic in Yemen, later returning to Memphis. He had converted to Islam after being arrested for possessing an illegal weapon during his freshman year. He now maintains has a member a Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula--although this claim has been questioned. He had been interviewed by an FBI agent twice before but not placed under surveillance. His family feel the FBI were negligent in preventing the attack.

Abdullah Ocalan: Founder of the Kurdistan Workers Party in 1978. He was arrested in 1999.

Abdullah Shaheed Jamal: A Jamaican Muslim, who was worked in the UK until 2007. In 2003, he was convicted by a jury of soliciting the murder of Jews, Americans, and Hindus and stirring racial hatred, serving four years.

Abdullah Sungkar: With Abu Bakar Bashir, founder of Jemaah Islamiah in 1993. He developed contact with the Al-Qaeda network soon afterwards.

Abimael Guzm?n: Leader of Shining Path, a maoist and purported terrorist organization in Peru, who was captured in 1992 and sentenced to life imprisonment. He was a former professor of philosophy.

Abu Ali Mustafa:A leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), until he was killed in 2000, at his desk in Ramallah. After his death, the armed wing of this organization was called the Abu Ali Mustafa Brigades. According to the Israelis, he was responsible for 10 car bomb attacks.

Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades: Military arm of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, named after Abu Ali Mustafa, who was assassinated by Israeli forces. In 2007, they rejected the urge, by Mahmoud Abbas, to relinquish their weapons to the Palestinian Authority. They have implemented several suicide attacks, killing politicians and civilians. In 2001, during the second or al-Asqa intifada, they killed Rehavam Zeevi, the Israeli Minister for Tourism.

Abu Bakar Bashir: With Abdullah Sungkar, officially founded Jemaah Islamiah in 1993, in Malaysia, while hiding from the Suharto Government. He and Abdullah Sungkar returned to Indonesia after the death of Suharto.

Abu Dujana: Former military leader of Jemaah Islamiyah and a key figure in several terrorist bombings. In rehabilitation sessions, according to Professor Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono, he maintains that jihad is appropriate, although expresses different opinions about violence in private.

Abu Hamza: Born in Egypt, former imam who supports Al Qa'eda, currently imprisoned at Belmarsh in the UK, primarily for inciting violence against non-Muslims. In Afghanistan, perhaps as a consequence of a mine left behind by the Soviets, he lost his hands and left eye, and now relies on a hook. Previously, he was an imam of the North London Central Mosque& he was also later dismissed from his position at the Finsbury Park mosque, where he established the Supporters of Sharia, later preaching outside the gates. He has been interviewed by John Safran

Abu Jibril: A leading figure and recruiter of Jemaah Islamiyah. He had spent three years in prison during the 1980s and fled to Malaysia during 1985 when Soeharto attempted to capture Islamic militants. During the 1990s, he resided in Malaysia, establishing Jemaah Islamiah with Ba'asyir and Sungkar, returning in 1998. His son Muhammad was later arrested as well.

Abu Mohammed al-Maqdisi: Key Jordanian writer of jihadist material and spiritual mentor of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who became the key Al Qaeda leader in Iraq. He did, however, prefer a more moderate approach towards the killing of Shia in Iraw, which elicited a dissociation between the two men. His writing partly developed in prison-after being arrested in Jordan because of his denouncement of the government.

Abu Musab al-Zarqawi: A militant Islamist, from Jordan. He coordinated a training camp in Afghanistan. He had been responsible for many beheadings during the Iraq War as well as suicide bombings. He founded and led the militant organization al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, which effectively became a branch of Al Qa'eda in Iraq during 2004. He was also responsible for bombings of three hotels in Amman, the capital of Jordan, in which 60 individuals were killed. While attending a meeting in 2006, he was killed by two US Air Force F-16C jets. He was first imprisoned in the 1980s, after dealing in drugs and perpetrating other petty crimes. He was also sentenced in 1993 for 15 years for planned attacks in Jordan. Together with Abu Mohammed al-Maqdisi, he attempted to intimidate guards and other prisoners to spread the jihadist ideology.

Abu Nidal: Founder of the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)--a militant Palestinian collective. His organization was formed in 1974, after splitting with the Fatah faction of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. This organization attacked passengers at the El Al ticket counters, at both the Rome and Vienna airports in 1985 simultaneously, killing 18 individuals and wounding 120.

Abu Qatada: Influential theologian, who espouses jihadi principles and promulgated opinions that influenced Richard Reid and Mohammed Atta. He had developed a series of fatwas during interviews with Adel Abdel Bary. He lived in Jordan but is currently imprisoned in the UK, attempting to thwart deportation.

Abu Salim prison: Prison in Abu Salim, a suburb of Triploi, Libya. This prison is governed by the Internal Security Agency unlike other jails in Libya, which are governed by the General People's Committee for Justice. Many political prisoners have been detailed, and a mass killing of prisoners unfolded in the prison during 1996, with over 1000 deaths, which was denied until 2004.

Abu Sayyaf Group: A militant separatist group, based in the southern Islands of the Philippines. Their objective is to create a Muslim state, independent of the majority Catholic state. Abu Sayyaf denotes father of sword-smith. They have undertaken assassinations and bombings as well as random and extortion to attract funds, in their attempt to establish a pan Islamic state in Suth East Asia. The group is regarded as small but powerful, with Abu Sayyaf is estimated to comprise 200 core members and 2000 or more extended members. They might have developed connections with Jemaah Islamiyah--a terrorist group operating in Indonesia.

Abu Yahya al-Libi: An al Qu'eda operative, from Libya. He escaped from US custody.

Abu: Translates to father in Arabic.

Adel Abdel Bary: A senior member of the Islamic Jihad movement, under Ayman al-Zawahiri. He governed the UK branch of Al Qa'eda with Khalid al-Fawwaz. He was then arrested in London at the request of the US, for his alleged involvement in the attempted Embassy bombings in the US during 1998. In 2008, he wrote letters that refuted Dr Fadl's challenge of jihadist ideology-and, somehow, this letter was not intercepted by prison officials.

Agro-terrorism: Form of terrorism in which food supplies are destroyed through bacterial infections of genetic engineering.

Ahl al-Kitaab: Arabic term, usually used to refer to Jews and Christians, literally translated as people of the book.

Ahmed Jibril: Head of the terrorist group called the Palestinian Front of the Liberation of Palestine-General Command.

Ahmed Jibril: Left the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine after disputes with George Habash to form the backed Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command, a secular movement that was supported by Syria.

Ahmed Yassin: Sheik who founded Hamas in 1987--derived from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. He was a quadriplegic, after a sporting accident, and almost blind. He was assassinated in 2004, together with 9 bystanders. In 1997, he was released from an Israeli prison, in exchange for two Mossad agents held in Jordan, provided he refrain from promoting suicide bombings in Israel, which he later violated.

Al Hisba: A chat forum, often representing the perspectives of Al Qa'eda.

Al Muhajiroun: Organization, established in the UK during the 1990s, to promote the concept of a global caliphate and support Al Qa'eda, advocating violence to establish an Islamic state. The organization has inspired UK Muslims to implement terrorist attacks in Israel and the UK.

Al Qaedaism: School of thought that embraces the philosophy that is promulgated by Al Queda, but represents individuals who are not necessarily members of this terrorist organization. Al Qaedaism also includes many of the terms that terrorists use to justify their attacks, such as "work", "the kuffar" or "enemies of Allah", and "martyrdom".

Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades: A collection of secular militant organizations, operating in Palestine, arguably an armed wing of Fatah--although denied by Fatah leaders. They are responsible for many suicide attacks in the West Bank. They have also attacked many Palestinians. They have undertaken some joint attacks with Hamas, such as firing Qassam rockets from the Gaza Strip.

Al-Asqa intifada: Sometimes called the second intifada, Palestinian uprising, beginning late 2000. The death toll of this uprising was approximately 550 Palestinians and more than 1000 Israelis as well as many foreign nationals. This intifada followed the failed peace discussions because of disagreements about the Temple Mount, the right of return for refugees, and Israeli security concerns.

Al-Asqa Mosque: Mosque, located in the Old City of Jerusalem. Together with the Dome of the Rock, represents the Temple Mount, often considered the third holiest site of Islam.

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya: Also known as the Islamic Group, militant organization, responsible for the attacks in Luxor, a southern city in Egypt, in which 58 foreign tourists and 4 Egyptians were killed. Their aim was to establish a Muslim state in Egypt. The group has since renounced violence from 1997, after the infrastructure of this organization was damaged and many leaders had been imprisoned. Egyptian authorities permitted leaders who renounced violence to convince followers in prisoners of their updated ideologies. Other attacks had followed, such as a shooting in which 18 Greek tourists, mistaken to be Jewish. These attacks were not approved by the leaders of this organization, however. Omar Abdel-Rahman was a spiritual leader of the movement.

Al-Mukmin Islamic school: School founded by Abu Bakar Bashir, a spiritual leader of Jemaah Islamiah. Currently, the school houses 2000 students. Several of the graduates, such as Amrozi and Muklas, were involved in the 2002 Bali bombings. Another former students was Muhammad Rais, who was convicted for storing the explosives that were used in the 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing, which killed 12 individuals, as well as Asmar Latin Sani, the suicide bomber of this attack.

Al-Shabaab: From a name that denotes the youth, this group is the military wing of the Council of Islamic Courts in Somalia. The organization comprises several distinct elements: some elements linked to Al Qa'eda and other elements linked to domestic insurgencies in Somalia. The number of fighters operating for al-Shabaab fighters could be as high as 7000& their objective is to fight until Somalia becomes a Muslim state.

Altruistic suicide: Suicide committed not because individuals attach low value to their lives, but to pursue some principle, allegiance, or collective interest. This form of suicide is not necessarily religious, however: Kamikaze pilots often volunteered, primarily to protect their family, and not necessarily to serve the Emperor.

Amar Makhulif: Also known as Abu Doha, a leading member of several Algerian militant groups. He was trained as a listener, to offer support to other prisoners in the UK, ultimately to attract recruits to his cause. He may have been involved in planning Al Qa'eda operations in Los Angeles and the UK. He was also wanted for planning the Strasbourg cathedral bombing plot.

Amir Abdillah: Also known as Dani Dwi Permana, suicide bomber at the Marriott Hotel. He entered the hotel, under a fake name, and told security he needed to deliver something to his boss. Saefudin Zuhru was coordinating the attack from inside a car. He told Dani to activate the 3G system of his mobile phone. Survivors near the buffet table heard his phone ring and noticed two black cables protruding from his backpack.

Amrozi: Executed by a firing squad, despite his preference for beheading, in 2008 for his involvement in the 2002 Bali bombing, which killed 202 individuals, 152 of which were foreign nationals. His brothers Ali Ghufron, also known as Mukhlas, and Ali Imron were also involved. Amrozi was the fifth of 14 children, born in 1962.

Ansar al-Islam: Terrorist organization that strives to destabilize the secular Kurdish leadership. In the aftermath of assaults from the US and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, many individuals dispersed to Iran.

Anti-terrorism, crime, and security Act 2001: British act that extended police powers to prevent terrorism. Police can detain terrorist suspects for 28 days, arguably violating habeas corpus. In addition, control orders can be imposed, subjecting suspects to curfews, denying access to the internet, and obliging individuals to wear electronic tagging devices. They can also search individuals with limited evidence of suspicion.

Anwar al-Awlaki: Imam and author, although trained as a civil engineer, who might be a recruiter for Al Qaeda. His sermons were attended by three of the 9/11 militants. He also communicated with Nidal Malik Hasan, the Fort Hood shooter. He has not been located since 2009 and is probably somewhere in Yemen, to where he returned after living in the US.

Armed Islamic Group (GIA): Militant Islamic organization, formed to overthrow the Algerian government and thus to establish an Islamic state. The organization began to institute violence when the military government did not recognize victory of the Islamic Salvation Front in 1991. The group hijacked an Air France Flight in 1994 and perpetrated massacres throughout Algerian villages, such as Bentalha and Rais. The GIA have killed more than 100 expatriates in Algeria. They have abducted many individuals and slit their throats.

Arrahmah.com: A radical jihad movement news portal, run by Abu Jibril.

Aum Shinrikyo: Japanese religious organization, now called Aleph, that engages in violent acts, such as the sarin gas attack on five trains in the Tokyo subways, killing 12 commuters. The movement was founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984. Aum Shinrikyo roughly translates to universal or supreme truth. Membership estimates range from 1600 to 9000in Japan alone. The belief system integrates elements of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and the writings of Nostradamus. Police later discovered explosives, chemical weapons, anthrax, Ebola, and a Russian MIL Mi-17 helicopter at the headquarters.

Awrah: Modesty and honor, compromised for example if Muslim men cannot conceal their private body parts. Strip searches, thus, can evoke considerable shame in Muslim men. In some prisons, individuals can be partly clothed during the strip search.

Ayman al-Zawahiri: Second and last emir of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad and prominent leader of Al Qa'eda. He is a qualified surgeon. In 1998, he merged Egyptian Islamic Jihad with Al Qa'eda. A biographer of bin Laden referred to al-Zawahiri as the main source of ideas in this organization. He was imprisoned after Sadat's assassination. His ideology became even more extreme after his detention in prison.

Babar Ahmad: Convened many jihadist websites from London and provided material support to terrorist groups in Afghanistan and Chechnya, through Azzam Publications. He was imprisoned in 2004. He maintains that he was abused in prison by officers.

Baghawat: Arabic term, which implies an insurgency against a government.

Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA): Militant Basque organization, seeking separation from Spain and France. The organization was founded in 1959 and espouses a Marxist-Leninist philosophy. The group has perpetrated many kidnappings and is responsible for over 800 deaths since 1980. They seek independence and governance over the Basque country as well as amnesty for past prisoners. Their targets have included military personnel, business leaders, politicians, judges, university professors, journalists, and former ETA members as well as some random civilian attacks.

Biraderi system: Network of castes and clans in Pakistan. Traditionally, individuals are encouraged to marry individuals only in their biraderi.

Blister agents: Any substance that elicits blistering, usually after contact with exposed tissue, such as lungs, eyes, or skin.

Brian Michael Jenkins: Expert on terrorism and transportation security. He is the author of "Unconquerable Nation" in 2006 and "Will Terrorists Go Nuclear?" in 2008. He is the Senior Advisor to the President of the RAND Corporation.

Brigate Rosse: Red Brigades in Italian& terrorist group, operating in Italy, involved in many political assassinations and bank robberies, espousing Marxist-Leninist principles. Their objective was to separate Italy from NATO. In 1978, they kidnapped, and later murdered Prime Minister Also Moro, a Christian Democrat.

Cageprisons: A registered company, established in 2003 to publicize the plight of prisoners detained in the context of the War on Terror.

Casablanca bombings: A series of suicide bombings, perpetrated in 2003. The attacks were directed at Casablanca in Morocco. The 14 bombers were aged in their early 20s. They killed 20 patrons of a Spanish restaurant in the city. Next, Hotel Farah was bombed. Later, three individuals, walking near a Jewish cemetery, were also killed. The final bomb was ignited in a Jewish community center& however, the building was empty that day. The number of deaths was 45, including 12 bombers. Four days earlier, Western compounds in Riyadh had been bombed as well, killing 26 individuals.

Cognitive opening: A crisis that challenges the clarity of previous worldviews, increasing the susceptibility of individuals to alternative perspectives (Wiktorowicz, 2005). Common crises might include death of relatives, discrimination, or other problems.

Cognitive reconstrual: Conceptualization of terrorist attacks as pertinent to the service of a moral imperative (Bandura, 1990). Jihadist militants often regard themselves as soldiers of a holy or cosmic war. Advantageous comparison represents one form of cognitive reconstrual, in which individuals compare their attacks to flagrant inhumanities, ensuring their conduct seems trivial or even benevolent in comparison.

Collar bombs: Improvised explosive device, strapped to the neck of a person, used occasionally by guerrillas in Colombia. The victim is usually under duress to attach the bomb to their neck as a form of extortion.

Command Wire Improvised Explosive Device (CWIED): Improvised explosive device that is connected to an electrical cable, enabling the operator control until this device needs to be initiated.

Cosmic War: Great historical and metaphysical struggles. Religious terrorists often allude to the notion of a cosmic war to characterize their ongoing battle and situation. These references to war justify the use of violence, enabling individuals who die to be perceived as heroes.

Counter Terrorism Committee: Committee of the Security Council. This committee identifies shortcomings in attempts to combat terrorism as well as offers states assistance in this endeavor.

Course in the Art of Recruitment: Al Qa'eda manual, comprising 51 pages, that was published online in 2009. Terrorist recruiters are instructed to invite potential recruits to lunch, to offer gifts, and to radicalize only two individuals at a time, and many other suggestions.

Da'wah: Arabic word, which implies preaching of Islam, through dialogue and discussion.

Deobandi Islamic movement: A movement that was founded in Deoband, India in the 1800s, but gained popularity during the 1990s. The philosophy is considered to coincide with Sunni Islam-and might entail some Whahhabi thought.

Dhimmi: Arabic word that translates to protected person, denoting someone from another faith, often Judaism or Christianity, whose right to practice is tolerated under Sharia law.

Dhiren Barot: Convicted terrorist, imprisoned in Franklin Prison in the UK, together with Omar Khyam, Kemal Bourgass, and Hussein Osman. He was convicted of planning terrorist attacks in London and New York, collaborating with Al Qa'eda and Jemaah Islamiah. He suffered severe burns in prison, after being attacked twice. He was not hospitalized for three days, however. Barot claims prisoner staff could have intervened to prevent the attack. He was born in India& his family was Hindu but he converted when he was 20.

Dulmatin: One of the most prominent terrorist leaders in Southeast Asia, until he was shot by police in 2010. His former name was Joko Pitono and he was born in Pemalang, Central Java. He fathered four children with his wife Istiada. With Umar Patek and Heru Kuncoro, he established training camps. He was the mastermind of the 2002 Bali bombings. He was also involved in the Christmas Eve bombings in Jakarta and Mojokerto in 2000, the bombing at the Atrium shopping center in 2001 as well as the first Marriott bombing in 2003. After these bombings, he sought sanctuary with the Abu Sayyaf group. He returned to Indonesia, disguised as a preacher, Muhammad Yahya. The preacher was then under surveillance. This man, which police did not realize was Dulmatin, seemed friendly, but was developing a terror network, procuring equipment from Ambon and Poso. He was eventually killed in a shoot out, in an internet cafe.

Earth First!: A radical environmental organization, which first operated in the US, developed by a few activists, such as Dave Foreman, Mike Roselle, Bart Koehler, and Howie Wolke. Their objective was to establish huge ecological reserves across the country. The organization now operates in many nations. Some of their tactics are peaceful& other tactics have culminated in injuries and include tree spiking-hammering a rod into a tree to prevent logging because the value of these trees diminishes.

Earth Liberation Front (ELF): Collection of cells, founded in the United Kingdom in 1992, that engage in guerrilla warfare and sabotage to curb the exploitation or devastation of the environment. Now an international movement, ELF has engaged in attacks in many nations, intending to reduce the economic benefits of environmental damage. They are regarded as an eco-terrorist organization but strive to minimize death to humans and animals. Their activities often involve arson and the sinking of ships.

Eco-terrorism: Acts of terrorism, violence or sabotage, all of which are committed to support the rights of ecologies, animals and the environment. The term sometimes includes acts against either people or property.

Eeman: Faith in Arabic.

Egyptian Islamic Jihad: Sometimes called the Islamic Jihad, militant organization, formed in the late 1970s in Egypt, now virtually a part of Al Qa'eda, with Ayman al-Zawahiri sometimes regarded as the leader. They were formed by members of the Muslim Brotherhood, who sought more rapid change. They have been involved in many attacks against Egyptian leaders as well as car bombings against US facilities. They are arguably responsible for over 1000 deaths. They successfully overthrew Anwar Sadat in 1981.

Eid: Three day holiday after Ramadan ends.

FARC or Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia: A Marxist-Leninist organization that engages in military warfare in Columbia. They are regarded as a terrorist organization in many nations. FARC, now called FARC-EP, was originally the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party, established in the 1960s. During the 1980s, like the Shining Path in Peru, they became involved in the cocaine trade. The Columbian government estimates the number of members, in 2009, to be approximately 11 000. They have been involved in abductions, assassinations, extortion, and hijacking, and have used improvised mortars.

Farihin Ibnu Ahmad: Former member of Jemaah Islamiyah, he was detained for smuggling ammunition to the conflict in Palu, a Christian village in Sulawesi. Even after undergoing extremist rehabilitation in Indonesia, he maintains the Bali bombing was justified. He claims to renounce violence but is also eager to fight in Afghanistan.

Fathi Shaqaqi: Along with Sheik Odeh, formed the Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip. He published a booklet, justifying suicide as an integral facet of jihad.

Fauzi: Former follower of Abu Jibril, he was accused of harboring Dulmatin. He is a wealthy paramedic.

Fiqh: Translates to "deeper understanding" and refers to Islamic jurisprudence that extends Sharia law, which is derived from the Quran and Sunnah, with evolving rulings and interpretations around rituals, morals, and social legislation.

Frank Terpil: Former member of the CIA who later developed a business called Intercontinental Technology, selling weapons, detonators, and communication systems to terrorist organizations. He purportedly supplied torture devices to Ugandan Dictator Idi Amin, One of the bombs that Terpil supplied to Amin was used to assassinate Bruce McKenzie, a member of cabinet in Kenya.

Fraternal deprivation: Perception in which individuals feel connected to a deprived group. That is, some individuals might not experience any personal deprivation, but nevertheless identify with a collective that, in general, is deprived. Conceivably, this fraternal deprivation evokes a broader sense of shame, which in turn provokes aggression as a means to alleviate these feelings.

GAM: The Free Aceh Movement--an organization that perpetrated an insurgency to secede from Indonesia during 2003 and 2004. A peace accord was developed in 2005. Many firearms and explosives are now sourced from this region. Sharia law is embraced in this region, and Aceh often tolerates some forms of Islamic radicalism. Although most GAM combatants oppose terrorists, some of these individuals have formed splinter groups.

Gama'at al-jihad: Former militant organization, connected with l-Gama'a al-Islamiyya or the Islamic group. Dr Fadl was responsible for changing the ideology of Gama'at al-jihad to renounce violence in 2007. Thus, since this time, Gama'at al-jihad has abandoned the ideology of Al Qa'eda.

George Habash: Palestinian Greek Orthodox, who founded the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, after being rejected by Arafet. He masterminded the hijacking of four Western airplanes. Earlier in his life, while a medical student, in 1948, the Israeli army captured Lydda, his hometown, and he became a refugee. He also founded the Arab Nationalist Movement in 1951 to overthrow the occupation of Palestine.

Germaine Lindsay: One of the suicide bombers involved in the 7/7 London attacks in 2005, who was born in Jamaica and detonated one of the four main bombs--on the Piccadilly line. He had also changed his name to Abdullah Shaheed Jamal, after his conversion to Islam. He was reportedly close to was reportedly close to Abdullah el-Faisal.

Green book: IRA training manual, distributed to volunteers during the recruitment process.

Hafez: A person who has memorized the Quran.

Hafiz Muhammad Saeed: Founder of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, a militant organization, with members primarily located in Pakistan. He is the amir or leader of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah, which many commentators assume is a cover organization, representing Lashkar-e-Tayyiba.

Hamas: A Palestinian militant organization, intent on destroying Israel. Hamas is an acronym, which translates to Islamic Resistance Movement. The military arm is called the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades. The movement was created in 1987, at the outset of the first Intifada, by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi and Mohammad Taha. Hamas initiated suicide attacks in 1993. Other attacks involve improvised explosive devices and rockets. The movement established systems to improve health and education, which raised its popularity.

Hani al-Sibai: A former member of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, who convenes a jihadist website from London. He had been a lawyer in Egypt.

Haram: Translates to unlawful or forbidden in Arabic as opposed to halal.

Hasib Hussain: One of the suicide bombers involved in the 7/77 London attacks in 2005, who was aged only 18 and detonated one of the four main bombs on the number 30 bus, which exploded in Tavistock Square. He was the youngest of four children, reared in Leeds. He became more religious in 2003, after visiting Pakistan. He was cautioned for shop lifting in 2004. The night before the attacks, the bombs were stored in a refrigerator to maintain their stability. His bomb detonated 50 minutes after the other bombs--because his original plans had to be refined.

Hassan al-Banna: Founder of the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928, an Islamic fundamentalist organization in Egypt. He was originally a school teacher. After the Brotherhood assassinated the prime minister of Egypt in 1948, for his inability to eradicate Israel, al-Banna was later killed.

Hassan Nazralla: Head of Hezbollah since 1992 after the assassination of Abbas al-Musawi. He was the ninth of ten children, born in East Beirut. He had publicly expressed anti-Semitic opinions in addition to his anti-zionist perspective.

Hezbollah: Translates to party of god, a Shia paramilitary organization, based in Lebanon, and regarded as a terrorist organization in many nations. They also operate schools, hospitals, and agriculture in Lebanon. They emerged in 1982 in response to conflicts with Israel. They have attracted some support from Christians, Druze, and Sunni since the 2006 Lebanon War. The organization receives financial support from Iran and Syria. Their military campaigns are assumed to have encouraged Israel to withdraw from Southern Lebanon in 2000.

Hijab: In the English speaking world, the hijab refers to the head covering, word by many Muslim women. In the Muslim world, hijab refers to modesty, privacy, or morality, whereas the actual covering is called khimar.

Himbali: Although his real name is Riduan Isamuddin, Himbali, as he is often know, was born in 1966 and was a former leader of Jemaah Islamiyah but captured by the CIA, working with Thai police, and sent to Guantanamo Bay. He was perhaps the main link between Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qa'eda as well as a close friend of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. He planned to rule as a Caliph or leader an Islamic state throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines, Myanmar, Thailand, and Cambodia. He was the second of 13 children.

Holsworthy Barracks terror plot: An Islamic terrorist plot to attack the Holsworthy Barracks, an army training camp in Sydney, shooting as many personnel as possible but their plans were thwarted. Four men, allegedly associated with al-Shabaab, were arrested. Another man was arrested the next day. The men were Saney Edow Aweys, Nayef El Sayed, Yacqub Khayre, Abdirahman Ahmed and Wissam Mahmoud Fattal.

Hudna: Arabic term, which denotes a truce. For example, in 2004, Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi offered a 10-year hudna, or truce, if Israel withdraws from territories captures during the Six Day War as well as establishes a Palestinian State in West Bank and Gaza.

Huseyincan Celil: A Canadian citizen who was later discovered to be Guler Dilaver, a terrorist from the Uyghur community in China, wanted for acts he committed in both China and Kyrgyzstan during 2000.

Hussein Osman: Convicted terrorist, born in Ethiopia, after his involvement in the failed 21-7 bomb plot in London. He placed an explosive at Shepherd's Bush tube station. He maintains he was motivated to pursue his cause after watching a video about war in Iraq. In Franklin prison, his cell was torched and his possessions were destroyed.

Imam Samudra: Previously know as Abdul Aziz, was born in 1970 and executed by a firing squad in 2008, despite his preference to be beheaded, after his conviction for involvement in the 2002 Bali bombing, which killed 202 individuals and involved three bombs: a suicide bomber near Kuta, a car bomb near Kuta, and a smaller detonation outside the US consulate. He had been imprisoned first at Denpasar and later at Nusakambangan.

Improvised explosive device (IED): Homemade bomb, utilized for purposes outside conventional military operations, often in terrorist acts for example.

Improvised Incendiary Device: Improvised explosive device, sometimes a modification of an existing weapon, that generates a chemical reaction that is intended to elicit the spread of fire, often to evoke panic. The Molotov cocktail is a common example.

Infrared improvised explosive device: Improvised explosive device that is triggered by infrared. This mechanism circumvents the problems associated with radio triggers, which cab be interrupted. Furthermore, this mechanism circumvents hard wires, which are difficult to conceal. This mechanism was developed by the British Army, inadvertently discovered by the IRA, and eventually disseminated to insurgent forces in Iraq, used against the coalition.

Insha'Allah: Translates to "God willing" in Arabic, which denotes hope for the event just mentioned.

Islamic Army of Aden: Islamic military organization, also known as Aden-Abyan, based in southern Yemen. They abducted 16 tourists in 1998, in Abyan. Four of these hostages were illed when the government attacked. They might have been involved in the Cole bombing in Aden.

Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB): Organized, based in Chechnya, comprising Islamic militants. The organization was founded in 1998. Many members were captured by Russians when they invaded Dagestan, a republic or state in Russia, to support a separatist movement.

Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU): A militant organization, espousing jihadi principles, formed in 1998. This organization launched several raids in southern Kyrgyzstan, from bases in Tajikistan and northern Afghanistan. After they were attacked by American coalition forces, while fighting alongside the Taliban, one of the co-founders, Tohir Yuldashev, and some fighters escaped to Pakistan and putatively established training camps.

ITERATE:Database of international terrorist acts-an abbreviation of International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events. The database is maintained at Cornell University in New York.

Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades: Also known as the al-Qassam brigads, the military wing of Hamas. The organization was developed to support Hamas in their attempts to thwart the Oslo Accord. Many of its cells in the West Bank have been destroyed by Israel. In 2005, Mohammed Deif was the general commander.

Jahilyyah: Arabic word, referring to the absence of believe in the truth. For example, individuals might concede they had lived in Jahilyyah.

Jamaat Ansar al-Sunna: Salafi terrorist organization, operating in Iraq, to combat the US and government. The organization includes Sunni, Kurdish, and foreign individuals. The organization was formed in 2003.

Jamiat ul-Ansar: Sunni Islamist terrorist organization, operating primarily in Kashmir. Some members do want to align more closely to Osama Bin Ladin, to participate in a global jihad. The organization has established camps in Pakistan, which offer both religious and military training.

Jemaah IslamiahTranslates to Islamic Congregation, a militant organization that is striving to establish an Islamic state in throughout Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Philippines, Singaopre, and Brunei. This organization was spawned from Darul Islam, which as a radical movement, operating primarily in the 1940a. Although initially focused on conflicts in Maluku and Poso, Indonesia, their primary target was Western states after the putative war on terror commences. Potential attacks in Singapore were foiled by local authorities. They also organized the suicide bombings in Bali, which killed 202 individuals. They might have been responsible for the Marriott hotel bombing in Kuningan, Jakarta in 2003, the Australian embassy bombing in 2004, and the Bali bombing of 2005.

Jerrold Post: Psychiatrist and academic, now employed by George Washington University, but previously an operative at the CIA. He has interviewed many captured terrorists and developed profiles. He edited a version of an Al Qa'eda manual in English, which offers advice to jihadists on how to blend in a crowd, for example, as well as the underlying philosophy.

Jewish underground: A militant organization that injured almost 200 Palestinians, primarily during the 1980s. Their acts were ignited by the murder of six Jewish seminary students. In response, they maimed several mayors of the West Bank and shot students at the Islamic University in Hebron, killing three individuals& 28 individuals were charged.

Jihad Jane: Nom de plume of a Muslim convert, from Philadelphia, who was accused of plotting to kill the Swedish cartoonist who had drawn a caricature of Muhammad.

John Horgan: An academic at Pennsylvania State University, director of the International Center for the Study of Terrorism. He has undertaken significant research into the IRA and Provisional IRA. His research now focuses more on disengagement and deradicalization from terrorist collectives.

Juma Namangani: Soviet paratrooper, who formed the militant organization called the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan with Tohir Yuldashev. Previously, he had been sent to fight against Afghan mujahedin as a Soviet conscript and was inspired by the zeal of his opponents. President Karimov outlawed the collective that Namangan and Yuldashev established--a collective that was formed to instil Sharia law in Uzbekistan--and hence they fled to Tajikistan. Eventually, they formed the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which was directed against Karimov. He was killed while fighting alongside the Taliban against the United States coalition forces.

Jumah: : Islamic prayer, on Friday afternoons.

Kafir: Arabic term, refers to anyone who does not believe the truth-that is, Islamic truth-or is ungrateful towards god.

Kahane Chai: An Israeli political party that split from Kach in 1990, both of which are regarded as terrorist organizations by Israel, the US, Canada, and the European Union. They have used bombs against individuals, such as school girls in Palestine.

Katyushas: A class of rockets, often used by Hazbollah, originally developed by the Soviets.

Kevin Gardner: While in prison, planned to detonate bombs on a Territorial Army base in Chesterfield and experimented with some primitive bombs& he was jailed indefinitely when these activities were discovered. He had previously been diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and converted to Islam in the Stoke Heath Young Offenders Institution and HMP Featherstone.

Khaled al-Bawardi: A former inmate of Guantanamo Bay, became inspired to be involved in militant Islam after watching jihadi videos while depressed and bored. Since religious rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia, he has since renounced this perspective. When he completed the program successfully, he was granted a free car, a financial stipend, and a job in commerce.

Khalid al-Fawwaz: A key representative of Osama Bin Laden in London, but is a Saudi national. He also was involved in embassy bombings in East Africa, as a member of Al Qa'eda. In 1995, he was involved in facilitating the possibility that bin Laden might shift to London.

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: A member of Al Qa'eda, living in Kuwait. He became head of the propaganda operations and purported to be the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks--as well as the Richard Reid shoe bombing, the Bali nightclub bombing, and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, all of which he confessed to in 2007. He was captured in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, in 2003 and later sent to Guantanamo Bay. At age 16, he joined the Muslim brotherhood

Khobar Towers bombing: Terrorist attack, in 1996, on a housing complex in Khobar, a city in Saudi Arabia. At the time, the complex did house military personnel from foreign nations, particularly the United States& 19 US serviceman and 1 Saudi person were killed, with 372 wounded. A truck exploded outside the building. Saudi Hezbollah or Hezbollah Al Hejaz were assumed to be responsible.

Kuala Lumpur al Qaeda Summit: Meeting, convened in a hotel in Kuala Lumpur, with key leaders of al Qaeda. The purpose, allegedly, was to plan future attacks such as the USS Cole and September 11 plots. The individuals who attended included Hambali, Tawfiq bin Attash, Ramzi Binalshibh, Nawaf al-Hazmi, and Khalid al-Mihdhar. The US had earlier intercepted a telephone call and Malaysian authorities were able to videotape the meeting.

Kumpulan Mujahidin Malaysia: Islamic terrorist organization, based in Malaysia and established by 1995. This organization, founded Zainon Ismail, who had fought in Afghanistan, seek to overthrow the existing Malaysian government, to create an Islam state, comprising Malaysia, Indonesia, and the southern Philippines. Furthermore, 48 members have been detained, under the Internal Security Act.

Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK): A group formed to establish a Kurdish state in Turkey. The movement is largely secular. In the 1990s, they began bombing market stores in Turkey. The organization may number between 7000 and 10 000 militants. They denoted a small bomb in Istanbul, to attract onlookers, followed by a large bomb, killing 27 individuals and wounding over 150 other civilians. Most of its money is derived from drug trafficking, sometimes controlling almost 80% of the illicit drug trade.

Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ): Islamic terrorist group, based in the Punjab region and Karachi, responsible for the deaths of many Shias and Christians in Pakistan. They were responsible for the abduction and murder of Daniel Pearl, the US journalist, in Karachi. They were also involved in the failed assassinations of Bhutto and Musharaff. Their objective is to establish Sharia law in Pakistan and a Sunni state.

Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT): Terrorist organization, primarily located in Pakistan. The organization was originally formed to fight the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan but now primarily focuses on insurgencies in Kashmir. The organization espouse a Salafist interpretation of Islam, similar to the Wahabi form. The movement has also been involved in other Muslim struggles in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Chechnya. LeT members were involved in the attacks on Mumbai, which killed more than 170 individuals. They are one of the largest militant organization in South Asia and are also active in the Jammu region, near Kashmir.

Libyan Islamic Fighting Group: A militant jihadist organization, formally aligned with Osama bin Laden, has now, since peace talks with the Libyan Government, constructed a code that refutes the tenets of al Qaeda. They now regard their armed struggle against the Libyan government illegal under Islamic law. For example, they now prohinit the murder of women, children, the elderly, priests, messengers, traders, and civilians in general. They were originally formed from supporters of the Afghan Mujahedeens.

London attempted public transport bombings on 21 July 2005: Attempted bombings, only two weeks after the 7/7 bombings. Explosives were detonated at three locations, but only the detonators exploded, producing a popping sound. One minor injury was reported. A manhunt was launched after CCTV of four individuals was released& all five of the men involved were eventually found and arrested: Muktar Said Ibrahim, Ramzi Mohammed, Yasin Hassan Omar, Whabi Mohammad, and Osman Hussain.

Louis Farrakhan: The national representative of the Nation of Islam, an American sect. His opinions are often controversial, such as the contention that deliberate attempts were introduced to exacerbate the effects of Hurricane Katrina and to eradicate the black population from New Orleans as well as his support for Robert Mugabe. Farrakhan, however, denies accusations of racism. He is also a violinist.

Madrass: Islamic religious schools.

Madrid train bombings: A series of 10 coordinated train explosions on the 11 March 2004, which killed 191 individuals. Overall, 13 IEDs had actually been placed on the trains. A Moroccan Moroccan national, Jamal Zougam, was deemed to physically execute the attack& overall 29 individuals--a collection of Algerian, Syrian, and Moroccan Muslims--as well as two Guardia Civil, the federal paramilitary organization, were charged. These individuals were derived from local cells and not the Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group, according to the judge.

Mahram: Anyone who a Muslim person is unable to marry, despite being the opposite sex and having reached puberty. Maharim include blood relatives, in laws, and non muslims males. Women should be escorted only by maharim.

Marc Sageman: A Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. After the 9/11 attacked, he collected biographical data on approximately 400 members of the Al Qa'eda network. He is worked in the field of clinical and forensic psychiatry.

Martin McGuinness: A leader of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA)--a more radical version of the IRA. As a Catholic person in Derry, North Ireland, he observed Bloody Sunday as an IRA member, when British Troops fired killed 14 marching Catholics, which sparked attacks by PIRA against Ulster and British forces. Then a Sinn F?in politician, tn 1997, 2001, and 2005 he was elected an MP, without ever sitting at Westminster. In 2007, he became deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland, wit Ian Paisley as first minister.

Martin Mubanga: Born in Zambia, Converted to Islam while in prison in 1992, after attempting to steal a car. He later traveled to Pakistan and Afghanistan. He was later detained and released from Guantanamo Bay, without charge, returning to the UK.

Marwan Bin Khatib Barghouti: Militant Palestinian leader, an important figure in both the first and second Intifada and former leader of Tanzim, a military arm of Fatah. In 2002, he was detained by Israel for attacks against Israeli citizens and soldiers. His candidacy for the role of Palestinian prime minister could thus not be maintained. Hamas has demanded his release, in return for Gilad Shalit, an Israeli soldier.

Melbourne Turkish consulate bombing: In 1986, a car bomb, exploding in a parking lot, killing one of the two bombers, both members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. The Turkish Consulate in Caroline St, South Yarra, Melbourne, Australia, was damaged as was 20 buildings closeby. The attacks were regarded as a retaliation in response to mass killings of Armenians in 1915.

Milestones: Book, written by Sayyid Qutb in prison, represents one of the most influential contributions to jihadist ideology. The book was smuggled out of prison and published in secret during 1964. He maintains the world should be governed by the Koran by disregarding the culture of other groups. The book criticizes Christians and Jews, claiming that both religions enable priests and rabbis to set regulations and thus represent polytheist religions.

Moazzam Begg: Former detainee of Guantanamo Bay, after being arrested in Pakistan, he now lives in the UK and is a director of Cagepersons, which was established to communicate the plight of prisoners convicted for activities related to terrorism, and often appears in the media. He was one of nine UK individuals detained in Guantanamo Bay but was released without charge. He concedes he financed combatants. He published a book that details his experiences in Guantanamo Bay.

Moghaddam, Fathali: Professor, in the Department of Psychology at Georgetown University. Professor Moghaddam undertakes research on the features of a culture that facilitate terrorism, such as isolation, categorization of groups as good and evil, a perception that society is illegitimate and needs to be changed radically, and a belief that terror can elicit these changes and are obliged to engage in these acts.

Mohammad al-Figari: Born in Trinidad and was convicted for attending terrorist training camps. He had earlier formed radical beliefs while imprisoned for crimes related to drugs. During this period of detention, he accessed extremist material, which was actually derived from the prison library. He had converted to Islam days before he was sent to prison the first time.

Mohammad Rezaq: Member of the Abu Nidal organization--a Palestinian terrorist group. Mohammad was partly responsible for the hijacking of an Egypt Air jet, in which 50 individuals were killed. When he was eight years old, his family fled from the West Bank to a refugee camp in Jordan. He joined Fatah, but then switched to the Abu Nidal Organization, disillusioned with Arafat (Post, 2005)

Mohammad Sidique Khan: The oldest of the suicide bombers involved in the 7/7 London attacks in 2005. He detonated one of the four main bombs, at Edgware Road. He lived with a pregnant wife, who later experienced a miscarriage, and his son near Leeds. A video, delineating his motivation, was later released on Al Jazeera, which referred to atrocities against Muslims, and assigned responsibility to citizens for supporting these governments. He had been earlier scrutinized by MI5, who did not perceive him as a threat. At the primary school at which he worked, he was reseverd, never discussing his political beliefs. He had also worked at a youth outreach program, which he might have used to recruit supporters. He had traveled to Pakistan and Afghanistan for military training.

Mohammed Asad: Islamic scholar, born into a Jewish family.

Mohammed Atta: Principal convenor of the 19 hijackers that perpetrated the 9/11 attacks, and member of the Hamburg cell. He was the hijacker in charge of the first plan to strike to World Trade Centre and died at age 33. Like two of his accomplices, he was a graduate of the technical university in Hamburg but previously studied architecture at Cairo university. In 1999-2000, he lived in Afghanistan, where he met Osama bin Laden. He later enrolled in the Accelerated Pilot Program in Florida.

Mohammed Deif: Commander of the al-Qassam Brigades, the key military wing of Hamas. He is regarded as one of the designers of the Qassam rocket. He survived many Israeli strikes, but might have been permanently injured, even paralyzed.

Mohammed Hamid: Born in Tanzania, but living in the UK, he was convicted in 2008 for training potential terrorists. He had previously been imprisoned twice for robbery and was a crack addict. Mohammad al-Figari had attended the training camps that Hamid had organized.

Mohammed Jibril: Son of Abu Jibril, a cofounder of Jemaah Islamiyah. Mohammed was a publisher of a magazine, called Jihadmagz. He was purportedly linked to Saifuddin Zuhri, a key organizer of the Marriott and Ritz-Carlton bombings, in which 9 people, including 3 Australians and the two perpetrators, were killed. His involvement is difficult to establish because most financial transactions are in person and not through bank accounts.

Mohammed Omar: Leader of the Taliban and de facto head of Afghanistan during 1996 to 2001, although recognized by few nations. No confirmed photographs exist of Mohammed Omar. During his term as leader or emir, he did not often venture from Kandahar, in southern Afghanistan, and devolved most of the diplomatic responsibilities to Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil, the foreign minister. He had earlier lost an eye in battle against the Soviets and sowed his own eyelid shut. He has not been found since 2001

Mosab Hassan Yousek: Author of "Son of Hamas", a book in which he discussed why he rejected Hamas while imprisoned in Israel, after watching Hamas torture potential defectors. His father was a founder of Hamas, and his mother was also very upset when he defected. Usually, defectors are supported by family& he had to abandon his family and convert to Christianity. He now lives in California.

Muklas: Also known as Ali Ghufron, executed by a firing squad in 2008, after his conviction for involvement in the 2002 Bali bombing. He was an older brother of Amrozi and a senior leader of Jemaah Islamiah. He had fought in Afghanistan.

Muktar Said Ibrahim: Leader of the failed 21/7 bombings of the public transport in London during 2005, who developed many of his beliefs in prison. He was born in Eritrea and arrived in UK as an asylum seeker in 1990. He was convicted of indecent assault against a teenage girl and involved in subsequent robberies, one of which was directed against a 77 year old woman. He formed radical beliefs during his prison sentence. His family have dissociated themselves from him, unaware of his terrorist activities.

Mumbai bombings of 2008: A series of 10 coordinated shootings and bombs in Mumbai during 2008. Over 170 people were killed and 300 people were wounded.

Mushabib al-Hamlan: He was involved in the September 11 plot, but abandoned the operation, partly in response to the pleas of his family, particularly after discovering that his mother was ill. Like Saud al-Rashid, he returned to Saudi Arabia. He had previously trained in Afghanistan.

Muslim Boys: Islamic gang, operating in South London. Many of the members have been imprisoned. The members often coerce conversions and have killed at least one person who refused to convert.

Muslim brotherhood: Founded in 1928 by Hassan al-Banna, this transnational organization, established in Egypt, promulgated many Islamic fundamentalist beliefs. The brotherhood is often the main political opponent in many Arab nations& the southern branch in Israel has attracted seats in the Knesset. Because the organization is often banned, candidates often represent themselves as independent candidates. They officially renounce violence, with some exceptions, although this assertion is often regarded as contentious. The writings of Sayyid Qutb, such as "Milestones" for example--a key member--underpins many of the tenets and beliefs if Al Qa'eda.

Myth of return: The assumption of some immigrants that perhaps they will return to their homeland one day--an assumption that impedes their motivation to learn the local customs or language (Lewis, 2007). An example is workers from the former British colonies, such as Pakistan and India, who worked in Britain to accumulate money for their family.

Nana Ikhwan Maulana: Suicide bomber at the Ritz Carlton Hotel. The bomb exploded at a similar time to the bomb that exploded at the nearby Ritz.

Nasir Abbas: A former member of Jemaah Islamiah and superior to Noordin Top, who eventually renounced violence after the 2002 Bali bombings and has supported the police. The Bali bombings contradicted his opinion that violence should be directed only to foreign officers occupying Muslim terroritories. He also felt he was treated humanely in prison and was permitted to pray with his interrogators, challenging his previous opinion that most of the government was apostate.

Nation of Islam: Religious organization, sometimes considered a heretical sect of Islam, which was formed in Detroit to resurrect the conditions of African Americans. They now observe Ramadan and Friday prayers and comprise approximately 20 000 members. They have been accused of racism and anti-Semitism.

Nicholas Berg: Jewish businessman, living in America, who visited Iraq after the US invasion. He was then abducted and beheaded at age 26, perhaps by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. The beheading was released on the Internet, purportedly by al-Ansars. This act was supposed to be an act of revenge, in response to the treatment of inmates at Abu Ghraib prison.

Nidal Masan: A major of the army, and former psychiatrist, accused of killing 13 individuals at Fort Hord, Texas in November 2009. He had exchanged emails with Anwar al-Awlaki, a Yemeni cleric, originally from America.

Niqab: Face veil, word by some Muslim women.

Noman Benotman: Former leaders of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, involved in dialogues and negotiations with the Libyan government. He had previously warned Osama Bin Laden not to attack the US because of potential retribution.

Noordin Top: A key figure in Jemaah Islamiah, experienced in explosives, fundraising, and recruiting suicide bombers, who established a violent derivative of this organization called Tanzim Qaedat al-Jihad. Together with Azahari Husin, he coordinated the 2003 Marriott bombing in Jakarta as well as the 2004 Australian embassy bombing, and the 2005 Bali bombings. He may have been involved in the 2002 Bali bombings.

Omar Abdel-Rahman: Sometimes called the "Blind Sheikh", former member of Islamic Jihad, responsible for the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Centre, serving a life sentence. He had previously been expelled from Egypt for his possible involvement in the assassination of Anwar Sadat. He had also lived in New York. He was accused of being the leader of Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, the Islamic organization responsible for the Luxor attack in Egypt, in which 58 foreign tourists were killed--partly in anger to the imprisonment of Abdel-Rahman. He became blind from diabetes.

Omar Khyam: Convicted terrorist, imprisoned in Franklin Prison in the UK, together with Dhiren Barot, Kemal Bourgass, and Hussein Osman. He was convicted of leading the Operation Crevice bomb plotters-a gang that planned to develop explosives from fertilizer. They had planned attacks at the Ministry of Sound, the largest night club in Londo, and utilities, public transport, synagogues, and a shopping center. He sought to be in solitary confinement after hearing about plots to attack him. Later, he retaliated and then confessed to guards.

Orange Volunteers: Militant organization, loyal to Ulster loyalist and Protestant principles. They were derived from individuals who disapproved the Northern Ireland peace process or were members of the Orange Order. Their main activities involve attacks on Catholic churches or businesses in Northern Ireland, intended to preclude settlements with Irish nationalists. One attack involved a synchronized attack on 11 Catholic churches.

Osama bin Laden: Purported head of Al Qa'eda. He was born in 1957 in Saudi Arabia. His father founded the largest construction firm in Saudi Arabia, although was reared as an impoverished migrant in Yemen and died in 1967 in a helicopter crash. Salem, the oldest of over 50 brothers or sisters of Osama, developed relationships with Reagan and the Bush family. In 1979, Osama fought with the Afghan resistance against the Soviet Invasion. In 1990, he offered support to King Fahd, if Iraqis attack--an offer the was rejected, which culminated in public tirades against the king and ultimately house arrest.

Oslo Accords: Declaration of principles, signed in 1993 in Oslo, providing a framework to facilitate future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians. The Palestinian National Authority was created by these accords, to administrate the Palestinian territories. The accord specifies that Israel Defense Forces must withdraw from parts of these territories.

Oslo Accords: The first major agreement between Israelis and Palestinian representatives, intended to represent a framework to facilitate future progress. The accords stipulated the formation of a Palestinian National Authority and the withdrawal of Israeli Defense from the Occupied Territories.

Palestinian Islamic Jihad: Palestinian militant organization, with the express goal to replace Israel with a Palestinian nation. The Al-Quds brigades, which is the military arm of the organization, has claimed responsibility for many suicide attacks. Although smaller than Hamas, they are also responsible for the Qassam rocket barrages of Israeli towns, primarily launched from Gaza. The movement was formed by Fathi Shaqaqi and Sheik Odeh, also called Abd Al Aziz Awda, and represents a branch of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad. The group has reportedly received training and funding from Hezbollah. Although like Hamas, the Palestinian Islamic Jihad was derived from the Muslim Brotherhood, they prioritize the restoration of traditional Islam to all parts of the Muslim world before the destruction of Israel--the converse of Hamas.

Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO): Representative of the Palestinian citizens, which entails several factions or members, including Fatah, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Palestinian People's Party, and six other factions.

Pentiti: An Italy, designates a judicial category of individuals who, although formally members of a criminal or terrorist organization, have decided to repent. These individuals receive abridged sentences in exchange for the information they provide police. They are often granted the right to begin a new life, with a new identity, abroad. This initiative can also inflict dissension within criminal organizations.

Pierre Richard Robert: Sometimes known as Abu Abderrahmane or the blue eyed emir of Tangier, a French citizen, who trained the perpetrators of the Casablanca bombings in 2003. He converted to Islam after playing soccer at a Turkish cultural center. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2003 by a Moroccan court.

Platter charges: Improvised explosive device, used in Iraq, which comprise flat metal pieces, in which plastic explosives are pressed onto one side. The explosives propel the platter into a designated target, sometimes 50 m away.

Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP): Currently, the second largest faction of the PLO, and more militant and less conciliatory than is the largest faction: Fatah.

Popular Front of the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLC-GC): Terrorist group, striving to liberate Palestine and applies Marxist principles, which is assumed to receive support from Syria and Iran. This collective was formed in 1968, representing a splinter group from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). The organization was opposed to political settlement with Israel and, thus, although originally a member of PLO, was not involved in the peace talks.

Post, Jerrold: Professor of Psychiatry and Political Psychology, at George Washington University. He operated with the CIA for 21 years and assisted the US government in understanding the psychology of terrorism.

Prince Mohammed bin Nayef Centre for Counselling and Care: Centre in Riyadh in which individuals are subjected to programs that are intended to redress extremist religious beliefs in exchange for liberty. Courses include "10 Steps Toward Positive Thinking". Many of the participants do, however, embrace terrorism again after they complete the program.

Qassam rockets: Artillery rocket filled with explosives with a steel cylinder, developed by the military arm of Hamas, the al-Qassam Brigades. They have been used to attack Israeli civilians, especially during the Second Intifada, and have claimed over 10 lives. They can be manufactured rapidly, using common tools and materials. They are propelled by potassium nitrate, a fertilizer, and sugar.

Quilliam Foundation: A think tank, located in London, that was established to counter terrorist activities. The organization is designed to promote moderate or Western Islamic views in lieu of Islamism or extremism. The organization receives funding from the government.

Rachid Ramda: Algerian terrorist, convicted of financing the 1995 metro bombings in Paris& he denies his involvement. His family was educated and he had studied architecture. In 1993, he had been sentenced in abstentia for his involvement in the terrorist attacks in the Algerian airport.

Radio Controlled Improvised Explosive Device (RCIED): Improvised explosive device that is controlled and initiated by radio. The receiver is connected to an electrical firing circuit and thus initiates the explosion. The transmitter is operated at some distance away. A matched coding system is often used to ensure spurious radio signals do not initiate the devise. Sometimes cell phones are used to trigger the mechanism.

Ramzi Mohammed: Convicted of his role in the failed 21/7 bombings of the public transport in London during 2005, originally from Somalia. He shared an apartment with Muktar Said Ibrahim. Video footage showed how he attempted to detonate the device.

RAND corporation: A Research and development nonprofit think tank, primarily funded by the US government, private endowments, and universities, to apply theoretical concepts to novel applications that improve the welfare and security of the US. Approximately 1600 individuals are employed by RAND at Santa Monica, Washington DC, Pittsburgh, and Boston. Overall, more than 30 recipients of the Nobel Prize, largely in the fields of physics and economics, have been affiliated with RAND. Some notable participants include Herbert Simon, W V Quine, Margaret Mead, Donald Rumsfeld, Condoleeza Rice, and Henry Kissinger.

Rationalisation of Jihad in Egypt and the World: Book, written by Dr Fadl, which challenges the jihadist ideology that he had earlier promulgated. The book shows how most forms of terrorism breach Islamic law. He argues that bombing hotels, buildings, and public transport systems is never permitted, but some forms of terrorism are allowed in extreme circumstances-and, even then, qualified scholars, not individuals who proclaim themselves as leaders on the internet, must approve this action. He highlights that Jews and Christians are considered neighbors in Sharia law.

Red army faction (RAF): A terrorist organization, operating in Germany from approximately 1970 to 1998. They adopted communist principles to override the regime, which they regarded as fascist. Their operations in Autumn 1977, which involved the abduction and murder of the industrialist Hanns-Martin Schleyer was coupled with a hijacking by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine--to elicit the release of other RAF terrorists and significant money.

Religious seeking: Attempts to uncover religious explanations or perspectives to understand their problems, sometimes a precursor to radicalization. Religion, for example, confers meaning in a society in which they are often despised.

Rengzieb Ahmed: A British Pakistani convicted member of Al Qa'eda-and one of the leading members of this organization in the UK. Earlier in his life, he was allegedly tortured by Pakistani intelligence officers. He was on a hunger strike in a Manchester prison because of fear for his safety.

Repression of consciousness: Situation in which shocking, destructive acts seem reasonable because they become common and integrated with the routine of individuals& these activities become normalized (Waller, 2002).

Ricardo Sanchez: US Lieutenant General, who authorized various forms of torture at Abu Gharib prison. He exploited the Arabic fear of dogs, which they regard as unclean like pigs.

Richard Reid: Convicted of terrorism in which he attempted to destroy an American Airlines aircraft in flight from Charles De Gaulle International Airport to Miami International Airport, by detonating explosives that were concealed in his shoes. He is thus often labeled the shoe bomber. He was detected and overpowered by other passengers. Khaled Shaikh Mohammed later admitted organizing this act. While serving time for petty crimes in the 1990s, he converted to Islam, which had been encouraged by his father. He seemed very impressionable, according to an imam (Brandon, 2009).

Roadside bombs: Improvised explosive devices, placed alongside the curb or roads, and detonated by passing vehicles. They are frequently used by terrorist or guerilla organizations.

Rohan Gunaratna: Terrorist expert and head of the International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research in Singapore. He maintains the ideological beliefs of terrorists must be challenged and that force or punishment is ineffective.

Said Ali al Shihri: Detained for six years at Guantanamo Bay and also participated in the Saudi rehabilitation program. Nevertheless, he emerged as the deputy leader of the Al Qaeda Yemeni branch, maintaining that he formulated the failed attempt to detonate a bomb on the Northwest Airlines flight on Christmas Day.

Saif al Islam al Gadhafi: Son of the Libyan leader, Muammar Gaddafi. He sought the support of former Noman Benotman, a former commander of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, to begin a dialogue with this organization.

Salaam: Arabic word, translates to Peace, is the term from which the name Islam is derived& also a greeting.

Salafi: A Sunni Islamic movement, the regard certain pious ancestors, called the Salaf, as role models, and thus espouse a pure form of Islam. Adherents do not regard themselves as members of Wahhabism, but nevertheless tend to respect Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. This movement is not uniform and not all groups support jihadism.

Salafiya Jihadiya: Translates to Salafist jihad. This militant organization, founded in the 1990s by North Africans, who had earlier fought in Afghanistan, sought recruits from Moroccan towns especially Sidi Moumen. The organization implemented bombings in Casablanca, 2003, striking two restaurants, a Belgian consulate, and a Jewish community center. Some of the members of this organization were also involved in the Madrid train bombings.

Salman al Odah: Former Saudi mentor of Osama bin Laden. In 2007, he criticized bin Laden, for the suffering caused to Muslims as a consequence of the culture of suicide bombings.

Sarin: Chemical agent, similar to some insecticides, applied as a chemical weapon, which attacks the nervous system. This gas was used by Aum Shinrikyo in their attacks on trains in Tokyo. The chemical inhibits the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. Hence, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft and impulses to muscle fibers remain unabated.

Sarlito Wirawan Sarwono: A professor of psychology at the University of Persada in Indonesia. Since 2005, he has worked as a counselor of deradicalization programs in Indonesia. His aim is to challenge jihad, takfir, and shahada or martyrdom, rejecting violence. He concedes the leaders often dominate the debate and justify violence, although are more conciliatory in private discussions.

Saud al-Rashid: Although he was involved in the September 11 plot, he abandoned the operation, partly in response to the pleas of his family. He returned to Saudi Arabia and was later released from custody. He had previously attended a training camp in Afghanistan.

Sayyed Imam Al-Sharif: Sometimes called Dr. Fadl, a previous head of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad. His book, translated to "The Essentials of Making Ready [for Jihad]" is a jihad manual, often read and cited by operatives in Afghanistan working in the Al Qa'eda network. He was a member of the top council of Al Qaeda. He has recently denounced violence in his book called "Rationalizing jihad". He argues that only non-Muslims attacking Muslims should be the target of attack. He also argues that Muslims are bestowed the duty to protect their neighbors--Jews and Christians, according to the Quran. He met Ayman Al-Zawahiri while studying medicine. He was convicted in absentia for his involvement in the assassination of Sadat.

Sayyid Qutb: Intellectual in the Egyptian Brotherhood Movement. Executed by the Nasser government and sometimes regarded as a martyr or shahid. One of his books, translated as the Shade of the Qur'an, is an extensive commentary on the Qur'an, which has contributed significantly to jihad. He was very critical of US materialism, after his extensive visits to this region. He believed Sharia law should be the sole basis of governance. His brother, Muhammad Qutb, a professor of Islamic Studis, taught Ayman Zawahiri, a mentor of Osama Bin Laden. While in prison, he was tortured and witnessed the murder of other members of the Muslim Brotherhood by guards-acts that amplified his belief that life represents a struggle between Muslims and everyone else.

Self starters: Phrase sometimes used to describe militant groups, inspired by the philosophy of Al Qaeda, but had never affiliated with this network or attended terrorism training camps (e.g., Kirby, 2007). Their activities were never governed or supported by Al Qaeda, epitomized by the London 7/7 bombers. Typically, in these situations, the members of these collectives were friends before they embraced the global jihad (Sageman, 2004). This closeness often translates into loyalty: The Madrid bombers, when raided, blew themselves up together.

Shahada: The fifth pillar of Islam, representing faith. The other pillars relate to prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zadat or alms, and hajj to Mecca. Refers to the Muslim belief or decree in the oneness of god and the acceptance of Muhammad as his prophet. The Shahada is repeated daily. The written form of the Shahad appears on the flag of Saudi Arabia

Shahid: Shahid or shaheed, although literally denoting a witness, often refers to martyrdom. That is, this title is bestowed on Muslims who have died fulfilling a religious commandment. The female equivalent is called shaheeda. In Islam, martyrdom, or istishhad, is distinct from suicide, or intihar. Martyrs are considered by the Qur'an as alive, cared for by God.

Sharif Mobley: Alleged member of the Yememi branch of Al Qaeda, with an apparent association with Anwar al-Awlaki. He had been employed at nuclear plants in New Jersey. He was arrested in Sana, the capital of Yemen, while Yemeni authorities were searching for militants associated with Al Shabab. He also purportedly shot two guards in a hospital.

Shehzad Tanweer: One of the suicide bombers involved in the 7/77 London attacks in 2005, who was 23 at the time of this suicide. He detonated one of the four main bombs at Aldgate Tube. He worked in a fish and chip shop, in Leeds, with his parents. He was supposedly an excellent sportsperson. In 2004, he attended a course at Muridke, Pakistan, near Lahore, which is supposed to be connected to Lashkar-e-Tayyaba--although the madrasa denies these associations. A video was later released, in which he related the attacks to support for American and Israel as well as involvement in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Shemagh: Headscarf, usually a square cotton cloth, often worn in the Middle East, sometimes called a keffiyeh. The scarf provides protection against the sun. The check pattern, which can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, may represent the fish net or ears of grain. Usually, the cloth is folded in half to create a triangle, and the folded part is placed across the forehead, and sometimes held in place by a rope, called an agal.

Shining Path: Maoist guerilla group, operating in Peru. Since the 1970s, the organization has committed violent acts towards political opponents, trade unionists, and civilians. Many nations, including Peru, deem Shining Path as a terrorist organization. Some factions have become involved in the cocaine trade. Nevertheless, after the leader, Abimael Guzm?n, was captured in 1992, activities have diminished.

Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan: Militant organization in Pakistan, responsible for attacks on Shiites following the Iranian Revolution. In 2004, a bomb blast killed 40 people in Multan, the sixth largest city in Pakistan& 45 individuals, mainly Shia Muslims in Quetta, a city near Afghanistan and Iran, were also killed.

Special Purpose Islamic Regiment (SPIR): Small militant organization, founded by Arbi Barayev, formed in 1996, based in Chechnya. They convened the hostage crisis in a Moscow theatre. Their current status is not well known.

State terrorism: Sometimes called regime terrorism, states that utilize their own institutions, such as police or military organizations, to harm their citizens and to stifle dissent.

Strasbourg cathedral bombing plot: A plot, formulated by Al Qa-eda, to bomb the Christmas market near the Strasbourg cathedral in France during 2000, during the Christmas celebrations. Mostly Algerians, such as Amar Makhulif, were purported to be involved in this plot.

Sydney Hilton bombing: An exploded bomb, outside the Hilton Hotel in Sydney. Three individuals were killed. No organization has conceded responsibility.

Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab: The person designated as the underpants bomber in Detroit, who had been trained by Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.

Tableeq: A vigil, convened late at night, in which individuals recite Wahabi texts.

Takfir: In Islamic law, refers to a Muslim who depicts themselves as an unbeliever, called a kafir. The sentence for this act can be execution. Usually, the abandonment of Islam is implied by some action or remark rather than explicit. Salman Rushdie represents a prime example.

Taqwa: Piety

Tashkent bombings of 1999: A series of 6 explosions over the course of an hour, in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, targeted at government buildings. Conceivably, five of the bombs were distractions& the sixth was perhaps intended to assassinate President Islam Karimov. Whether the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan is uncertain& some scholars argue that Tajik terrorist cells or organizations, such as the United Tajik Opposition, could have been involved.

Terrorism Prevention Branch (TPB) :Branch of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime in Vienna, which offers assistance to members on legislation, intended to combat and prevent terrorism. The branch assists legislative drafting, training of judges and lawyers in these changes, and cooperation on international matters such as extradition.

Terrorism: Although this term is difficult to define definitively, terrorism is usually assumed to entail the use of force or violence against civilians, intended to evoke fear as a means to influence the socio-political landscape (e.g., Marsella).

Tore Bjorgo: Professor at Norwegian Police University College. Professor Bjorgo contributes to the Consortium for Research on Terrorism and International Crime. He has written and edited books on the radicalization process and the disengagement from violence.

Tunisian Combat Group (TCG): Sometimes called the Tunisian Fighting Group, a network of individuals that strive to instill an Islamic government in Tunisia. They have developed associations with the Al Qaeda network.

Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab: The Christmas bomber. A young Nigerian who allegedly attempted to blow up a plane bound to Detroit. His parents contacted the US government to report his activities& strong relationships with families, therefore, are crucial for counterterrorism. He is now cooperating with the FBI, in line with the wishes of his parents.

Umar Patek: Together with Dulmatin, one of the masterminds of the 2002 Bali bombings. After these bombings, he sought sanctuary with the Abu Sayyaf group.

Ummah: The worldwide community of Islam--the perspective the Islam world is united and members must protect one another.

United Islamic Front (UIF) for the Salvation of Afghanistan: Called the Northern Alliance in the western media, a military and political organization that united various competing Afghan to fight the Taliban. The organization comprises five main factions& four of the factions primarily comprise Uzbek, Hazara, Tajik, and Pashtun members& two of the factions are Shia groups.

Usama Hassan: Former fighter in Afghanistan during the 1980s, originally from England. He felt appalled by the 2005 attack on London. He returned to England and rejected Al Qaeda.

USS Cole: US Navy Destroyer, attacked by a suicide bomber in 2000, while harbored at Aden, a port in Yemen. The explosion killed 17 sailors, wounding 29 as well. Although organized by Al Qaeda, the Sudanese Government was also liable, according to a Federal Judge in the United States.

Wahhanism: A fundamentalist interpretation of Islam, dating back to the 1700s, which flourishes in Saudi Arabia. In the early 1900s, the House of Saud combined various tribes to form Saudi Arabia, blending distinct sects such as Sunni, Shia, and Sufism, into the Wahhabist movement. Saudi Arabia has spread these teachings through their creation of mosques and madrasses around the world.

Zacarias Moussaoui: French citizen of Moroccan descent, convicted of a role in the September 11 terrorist attacks, now in a Colorado prison, located in the city of Florence. He demonstrated threatening behavior in court, expressing disdain towards the proceedings and representing himself. He conceded that he was a member of Al Qa'eda. He was primarily raised by his impoverished mother and was the target of racism in France. He was gifted in handball. He also completed a Masters degree in International Business.

Zakat: Alms to the poor--a pillar of Islam.

Ziad Jarrah: September 11 hijacker. His wife, Ayel Senguen, testified that she had lost his love to the Hamburg cell--a manifestation of separation that typifies members of militant organizations before an attack.

References

Bandura, A. (1990). Mechanisms of moral disengagement. In W. Reich (Ed.), Origins of terrorism: Psychologies, ideologies, theologies, and states of mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brandon, J. (2009). Unlocking Al-Qaeda: Islamic extremism in British Prisons. Quilliam.

Kirby, A. (2007). The London Bombers as"self starters": A case study in indigenous radicalization and the emergence of new autonomous cliques. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30, 415-428.

Lewis, P. (2007). Young, British, and Muslim. London: Continuum.

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding terror networks. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.

Waller, J. (2002). Becoming evil: How ordinary people commit genocide and mass killing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wiktorowicz, Q. (2005). Radical Islam Rising: Muslim extremism in the West. Lanham: Roman & Littlefield.




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