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Unintuitive findings - Social interactions

Dr. Simon Moss

Honesty and awareness

Observation 1. In general, people are more willing tolie when they communicate over email than when they communicate with pen and paper (Naquin, Kurtzberg, & Belkin, 2010).

Observation 2. After individuals are exposed to words that symbolize support, like "love", they become more candid and honest with themselves& they are more likely to concede their faults and admit to behaving inappropriately. Even subliminal exposure to these words can promote this candor (Gillath, Sesko, Shaver, & Chan, 2010& see Attachment theory).

Observation 3. When individuals lie, rather than speak truthfully, a few changes in their body and speech are common. Pupils are more likely to dilate, for example. Their answers tend to be shorter. Repetitions of words, phrases, or details, however, are more prevalent. Speech errors, such as failing to complete a sentence, are more common, but retractions of previous remarks are less common (DePaulo, Lindsay, Malone, Muhlenbruck, Charlton, & Cooper, 2003& see lie detection).

Observation 4. Smiles that appear gradually rather than rapidly--evolving over the course of .5 seconds rather than .1 second or so--are regarded as more sincere. The individual appears more trustworthy as well as attractive, but less dominant (Krumhuber, Manstead, & Kappas, 2006).

Observation 5. People do not like to participants in games in which they are granted the opportunity to deceive another person. To illustrate, scholars often ask participants to complete the ultimatum game in which one individual is granted 30 poker chips. This individual can then offer a portion to someone else, such as 10 of the chips. If this person rejects the offer, perhaps because of anger or resentment, nobody is permitted to keep the chips. If this person accepts the offer, each individual receives the allocated chips. Sometimes, the person offering the chips is able to deceive the other individual. For example, only this person knows they will receive twice as much money for each chip--and, thus, dividing the chips evenly is not really fair. Interestingly, if people are granted this opportunity to deceive someone else, they are not as willing to participate in this game (Shalvi, Handgraaf, & De Dreu, 2011). If the other person is depicted as competitive, this aversion to such opportunities diminishes.

Observation 6. If people tend to believe in god and are then exposed to words that are synonymous with divinity, such as god, spirit, prophet, and sacred, they are more likely to exaggerate their qualities and conceal their limitations while completing a personality inventory. That is, they show a social desirability bias as well as feel more self-conscious. In essence, they feel they are being watched, called the supernatural monitoring hypothesis (Gervais & Norenzayan, 2012).

Observation 7. In some nations, people are more concerned about helping their community or group than seeking personal independence or power, called collectivism. In nations in which collectivism is common--or in which inequalities in power are pronounced--public officials are more likely to be corrupt (Fine, 2010& see measures of culture and climate, especially the Hofstede dimensions).

Observation 8. If people tend to trust other people, they are actually more proficient at detecting whether another person is lying (Carter & Weber, 2010).

Observation 9. If the writing in a questionnaire is very conspicuous rather than faint, people are more inclined to disclose, rather than conceal, personal information. They will tend to respond more honestly to questions (Alter & Oppenheimer, 2009).

Observation 10. Individuals are more inclined to lie or cheat as a means to earn money in the late afternoon than in the early morning. In addition, later in the afternoon, in contrast to earlier in the morning, people are not as likely to complete word fragments, like "e - - ic - -" with words that relate to morality, such as ethical, indicating their moral awareness dissipates. Furthermore, at this time, people are more likely to read indulgent rather than informative magazines, such as People rather than The New York Review of Books, indicating their self-control diminishes in the afternoon (Kouchaki & Smith, 2013).

Observation 11. In general, when people need to lie, prefrontal regions of the brain are more likely to become activated. However, if people engage in some action, such as shift one of their toes subtly, while they are sincere, the capacity to differentiate truth from lies dissipates (Ganis, Rosenfeld, Meixner, Kievit, & Schendan, 2011). For example, in one study, participants watched a series of dates on a screen. After each date, they had to indicate that none of these dates were their birthdate. If their birthdate did appear, activity in the prefrontal cortex increased. But, when participants subtly wiggled a toe and considered another memory when any other date appeared, this pattern of findings did not emerge. Instead, all the dates activated the prefrontal cortex.

Family and romantic relationships

Observation 1. Sometimes, individuals perceive some letters of the alphabet as more appealing or desirable than other letters. Individuals who do not like the letters that correspond to the initials of their partner are more likely to be dissatisfied in their relationship (LeBel & Campbell, 2009).

Observation 2. If mothers feel dissatisfied with life before the birth of a child, two to three years later these children are more likely to demonstrate problems with verbal skills and social or emotional development: hyperactivity, inattention, conflict with peers, and displays of unpleasant feelings are more common (Berger & Spiess, 2011). These relationships persisted even after the cognitive ability and personality of mothers, as represented by the five factor model, was controlled. Conceivably, when life satisfaction is limited, mothers become less sensitive to the needs and concerns of her children, undermining attachment style (see attachment theory).

Observation 3. Relative to people who are not materialistic, people who are very materialistic and thus greatly value possessions are more likely to experience insecurity in relationships. For example, their dreams are more likely to revolve around problems in relationships or other manifestations of loss, such as falling or death (Kasser & Kasser, 2001). In contrast, when people imagine times in which they felt secure and loved, they become less materialistic. Specifically, they do not value their possessions as markedly (Clark, Greenberg, Hill, Lemay, Clark-Polner, & Roosth, 2011& see attachment theory).

Observation 4. The personality of people affects their sexual fantasies. To illustrate, some people are often concerned they might be rejected by their partner, friends, or relatives. After these people argue bitterly with their partner, their sexual fantasies depict themselves as helpless. In contrast, other people do not like to become too close to other individuals, preferring more detached rather than emotional or intimate relationships. After these people argue bitterly with their partner, their sexual fantasies tend to depict themselves as more powerful than helpless (Birnbaum, Mikulincer, & Gillath, 2011).

Observation 5. Some people can develop complex plans and readily inhibit unsuitable behavior to fulfill their goals, called executive control. Individuals who exhibit proficient executive control are more likely to be faithful in relationships. For example, in one study, participants needed to decide whether a word is positive or negative if presented in a white font--but needed to decide whether a word is blue or green if presented in another color. If participants performed well on this task, they were less likely to flirt with someone of the opposite sex at another time (Pronk, Karremans, & Wigboldus, 2011).

Observation 6. After parents are reminded of terrorist incidents, they become more likely to embrace or adopt an authoritarian parenting style. For example, they punish their children harshly in response to minor violations& they are often scold their children and tend to be be cold rather than warm (Fischer, Fischer, Frey, Such, Smyth, Tester, & Kastenmuller, 2013).

Social confidence and skills

Observation 1. After individuals consider their unique qualities, they become more assertive (Zhang, Feick, & Price, 2006& see Self construal).

Observation 2. Individuals who watch a stranger act immorally or inappropriately--such as throw a plastic bottle into a flowerbed--will obviously not always express their disapproval. Interestingly, they are more reluctant to express their disapproval if this person belongs to a different social category. Students, for example, will seldom express their disapproval to individuals who are not students (Nugier, Chekroun, Pierre, Niedenthal, 2009).

Observation 3. When individuals undertake an embarrassing task, such as wear a t-shirt depicting a derided singer, they overestimate the percentage of people who notice their presence. In one study, for example, they guessed that 46% of people in a room noticed their presence--almost double the actual percentage--called the spotlight effect (Gilovich, Medvec, & Savitsky, 2000).

Observation 4. Compared to employees who do not enjoy their job, employees who enjoy their job--and feel they can utilize their skills and abilities at work--tend to become more extraverted and sociable over time (Scollon & Diener, 2006& see five factor model of personality).

Observation 5. Relative to other individuals, people who were the oldest sibling in their family tend to be less dominating, talkative, lively, and assertive (Pollet, Dijkstra, Barelds, & Buunk, 2010). Furthermore, compared to people who were the youngest sibling in their familiar, people who were the oldest sibling in their family tend to be more responsible, obedient, and educated (Herrera, Zajonc, Wieczorkowska, & Cichomski, 2003& Paulhus, Trapnell, & Chen, 1999).

Observation 6. In some nations, particular during the early 1900s, specific pathogens and diseases like leprosy, malaria, typhus, dengue, and tuberculosis were especially prevalent. In these nations, in which these pathogens were prevalent, residents tend to be less extraverted (Schaller & Murray, 2008) but more obedient, willing to conform to all norms and customs (Murray, Trudeau, & Schaller, 2011& see also self construal).

Observation 7. In general, individuals assume that another person would be more willing than would they to engage in some embarrassing event, such as dance in front of a large audience (Van Boven, Loewenstein, & Dunning, 2005& see empathy gap effect).

Observation 8. If people are shy rather than confident in social settings, they tend to sit far away from other individuals, especially when happy (Brown, Diekman, Tennial, & Solomon, 2011). While happy, individuals are more likely to initiate their natural tendencies. Alternatively, while happy, people strive to maintain this emotion. If they perceive social interactions as a threat, they will they avoid people whenever they feel happy.

Observation 9. Treatments to help autistic children, such as occupational therapy programs, are more likely to enhance language use and social interactions if these children are granted opportunities to interact with animals (Sams, Fortney, & Willenbring, 2006). During occupational therapy programs that are customized to treat autism, the children may learn playing skills, social skills, and sensory integration. If they interact with animals as well, the programs tend to be more effective.

Observation 10. After individuals recall times in which they were granted power over other people, they tend to perform more effectively and persuasively during job interviews (Lammers, Dubois, Rucker, & Galinsky, 2013).

Observation 11. When people deliberately speak with a lower pitch than usual, they perceive themselves as more influential, assertive, firm, confident, and independent as well as direct their attention more to broad categories rather than specific details (Stel, van Dijk, Smith, van Dijk, & Djalal, 2013).

Observation 12. According to the matching law, when individuals need to choose between one of two behaviors, they will tend to select the option that generates, on average, the greater reinforcement. Specifically, the likelihood of each option tends to vary linearly with the average magnitude of reinforcement. To test this law in adults, Borrero et al. (2007) exmained conversations between college students on juvenile delinquency, lasting between 20 and 30 minutes. A few individuals in this conversation, unbeknownst to the participants, were actually confederates of the experimenter. Some confederates were told to be more agreeable and thus reinforcing. Consistent with the matching law, participants were more likely to direct their gaze and attention to confederates who agreed more often--and the magnitude of this relationship was conformed closely to the matching law. Yet the matching law was more likely to be observed during the first 5 minutes instead of the last 5 minutes of the conversation& a similar study, however, observed the converse. The implication of this research is that approval can significantly affect the participation of individuals during conversations.

Observation 13. After women are sprayed with perfume, their anxiety seems to diminish and their confidence appears to improve (Higuchi, Shoji, Taguchi, & Hatayama, 2005). For example, during interviews, they are not as inclined to exhibit the signs of anxiety: they do not touch their hair and face as often or shift their seat. In addition, they seem more confident and assured, as judged by people watching them on video.

Observation 14. When attempting to impress someone else, people tend to underestimate the extent to which highlighting their achievements and talents will annoy other people (Scopelliti, Loewenstein, & Vosgerau, 2015). In particular, when people convey their achievements and talents, they experience pride and happiness themselves. Consequently, they often project these feelings onto the people to whom they are speaking: That is, they assume other people will also feel proud of them and happy. They cannot readily imagine how someone else will feel, called a social projection bias. Yet, other people often feel envious or annoyed and ultimately unimpressed.

Observation 15. If people report elevated levels of neuroticism, in which they are susceptible to anxiety and other negative emotions, eating fermented foods--foods like sauerkraut, kimchi, tempeh, miso, and kefir, all of which contain probiotics--tends to be negatively associated with social anxiety (Hilimire, DeVylder, & Forestell, 2015). Somehow, the benefits of these foods to the digestive system may diminish anxiety, at least in social settings.


Observation 1. Employees who work in open-plan offices are less likely to trust their colleagues, or fulfil their goals, than do employees who work in traditional offices (Brennan, Chugh, & Kline, 2002).

Observation 2. After individuals are repeatedly, but subliminally, exposed to the name of someone they like, rather than dislike, over several minutes, they subsequently become more trusting (Huang & Murnighan, 2010). They are more inclined, for example, to lend money to someone, without any guarantee this money will be returned.

Observation 3. After individuals attempt to remember an event in their lives that evokes feelings of nostalgia, they are more likely to feel they can help friends or colleagues in distress& they also feel their relationships are more solid. Nevertheless, if they feel uncomfortable in very intimate relationships, this benefit of nostalgia diminishes (Wildschut, Sedikides, Routledge, Arndt, & Cordaro, 2010& see Nostalgia).

Observation 4. In general, relative to other individuals of the same age, teenagers who watch many hours of TV every day tend to be less trusting of other people (Halpern, John, & Morris,2002). Indeed, if individuals watch many hours of TV in one month, they tend to become less trusting in the future, even after controlling many demographic variables. This association, however, does not apply to individuals who primarily watch the news. Furthermore, this association seems especially pronounced in America.

Observation 5. When individuals hold a warm beverage, they tend to feel closer to the person with whom they are conversing. When individuals hold a cold beverage, this sense of closeness dissipates (Ijzerman & Semin, 2009).

Observation 6. After individuals reflect upon someone whose career prospects are better than are their own, they become inclined to perceive this person as less trustworthy. Specifically, they are not as likely to feel a warm, trusting, emotional bond with this individual (Dunn, Ruedy, & Schweitzer, 2012). In particular, when people feel inferior to someone else, they experience negative emotions. These emotions may then bias their feelings and judgments.

Observation 7. If people feel they are granted status and respect, such as a prestigious title, they are more inclined to trust other individuals (Lount & Pettit, 2012). They are more willing, for example, to assume that borrowed money will be returned. They assume that other people are more benevolent. In particular, after individuals are bestowed status, they expect to be rewarded in some way by other people, often translating to feelings of trust.

Observation 8. If employees have developed a solid, supportive, and trusting relationship with their supervisor, if this leader then leaves, they are especially likely to distrust the new leader (Ballinger, Schoorman, & Lehman, 2009). Positive feelings to one leader do not translate to positive feelings to future leaders. In particular, individuals tend to feel upset or distressed when a trusted supervisor leaves. These negative emotions bias their evaluations or expectations of the next supervisor, called affect infusion.

Observation 9. After people are exposed to boardroom tables, briefcases, and other objects that epitomize business, they are not as trusting of other people& they exhibit behaviors that indicate they believe they are likely to be exploited (Kay, Wheeler, Bargh, & Ross, 2004& see games).

Observation 10. If an attractive man approaches a woman, tells her that she is pretty, and asks for her telephone number, she will often but not always refuse. Interestingly, if he asks for her number while standing near a bakery, in which a pleasant odors wafts through the air, she is more likely to offer him her number (Gueguen, 2012). The pleasant odor might evoke positive feelings, eliciting trust rather than distrust.

Observation 11. People are more inclined to forgive someone after this offender has been punished in some way (Strelan & Van Prooijen, 2013).

Observation 11. Men often feel threatened when supervised by a woman, consistent with a notion called precarious manhood theory in which manhood is assumed to be tenuous and elusive. Men are even more likely to reassert their masculinity by acting more assertively towards these women. That is, men act more assertively towards female than towards male supervisors, manifesting as requesting better rights and conditions. They are more likely to notice words that are synonymous with threat if they imagine a female rather than male supervisor. This pattern of observations is more likely when the female supervisor is ambitious--striving to scale the corporate hierarchy--rather than focussed on improving the team and organization. Presumably, female supervisors that focus on the team diminish a sense of competition and distrust.

Observation 12. If individuals donate money or dedicate effort to help some community, they tend to be perceived as more trustworthy, benevolent, and honest (Hall, Cohen, Meyer, Varley, & Brewer, 2015). Indeed, even people who donate to one religious community are perceived as more trustworthy by members of other religious communities. Presumably, individuals who sacrifice their interests to help some community are assumed to suppress their self-interests, at least in some circumstances. They will, therefore, be disinclined to exploit other people.

Cooperation and altruism

Observation 1. Employees are more inclined to assist one another after they are exposed to words that relate to religious concepts, such as heaven, miracle, soul, or faith (Pichon, Boccato, & Saroglou, 2007).

Observation 2. After individuals read an article that highlights how human behaviour is determined by genes, luck, their family background, or their environment, they become less altruistic (Baumeister, Masicampo, & DeWall, 2009). They are less willing to assist strangers (see belief in free will).

Observation 3. If individuals help someone else, they expect a favor in return that is comparable to the cost, effort, or inconvenience of this act. In contrast, if individuals receive assistance, they return a favor that is comparable to the benefit or gain they enjoyed as consequence of this act--almost regardless of the cost or inconvenience (Zhang & Epley, 2009& see Social exchange theory).

Observation 4. After individuals imagine forgiving someone who had acted offensively or inappropriately, they become more altruistic and cooperative to other people as well. They become more likely to donate money, for example. They also feel closer to most of their friends and colleagues (Karremans, Van Lange, & Holland, 2005& see forgiveness).

Observation 5. After a spray that smells like citrus, such as Windex, is spurted on the window, individuals become more likely to donate money to a cause (Lilenquist, Zhong, & Galinsky, 2010).

Observation 6. When managers or employees discuss the benefits and drawbacks of some workplace value, they are more likely to embrace this value. For example, after individuals debate the benefits and drawbacks of honesty in the workplace, they are more likely to behave honestly as well as pursue related values, such as loyalty (Karremans, 2007).

Observation 7. Relative to immigrant groups that have not formed strong associations with each other, immigrant groups that have formed strong associations with each other are typically more involved in the social and political life of the nation (Fennema & Tillie, 1999).

Observation 8. In some people, their index finger is almost as long--or even longer--than is their ring finger. These people tend to share their feelings to friends, enjoy intimacy, trust their intuition, demonstrate a vivid imagination, and monitor the emotions or needs of other people. They are not as likely to understand complex machines, enjoy competition, disregard emotions, and feel tough (e.g., Fisher, Rich, Island, & Marchalik, 2010& see also digit ratio).

Observation 9. If individuals imagine themselves in a crowded room, they become less inclined to help a person in need (Garcia, Weaver, Moskowitz, & Darley, 2002). That is, they unconsciously feel that someone else might help instead.

Observation 10. When people feel they might be envied, they often are more likely to behave cooperatively. They are, for example, more likely to offer helpful advice to someone who they feel might feel envious of their wealth or privileges, primarily to appease these feelings (van de Ven, Zeelenberg, & Pieters, 2010).

Observation 11. Some organizations have recently introduced the notion of hot desking. In these organizations, employees do not work at the same desk or workstation every day. Instead, they tend to be assigned the first desk that is available, and thus shift from day to day. Relative to traditional workplaces, in these organizations, employees do not feel as connected to their workgroup or team. They are not as likely to feel a sense of belonging or cohesion (Millward, Haslam, & Postmes, 2007).

Observation 12. If employees are granted opportunities to express their opinion and ideas on how the office should be designed, as well as permitted to change various facets of the design, they are more likely to feel satisfied at work and connected to their team or workgroup (Knight & Haslam, 2010& see also social identity theory).

Observation 13. As the number of people who experience a misfortune such as a natural disaster increases, other individuals feel less compassion towards these victims, called collapse of compassion. Interestingly, when people are encouraged to improve their own emotions, they become especially unlikely to feel compassion towards large masses of suffering people (Cameron & Payne, 2011).

Observation 14. In some senior management teams, the extent to which the individuals experience excitement or dejection varies considerably across the group. That is, the mood of these individuals is diverse. In other senior management teams, the degree to which the individuals experience excitement or dejection is similar across the group. When these mood states are similar across the team, the individuals feel more satisfied with this group (Barsade, Ward, Turner, & Sonnenfeld, 2000). They feel like they can influence the group more effectively, perhaps increasing the likelihood they will embrace consensus and collaboration to reach decisions, called a participative decision making style. Conceivably, this similarity increases the likelihood the individuals will share a similar perspective, reducing conflict.

Observation 15. Individuals sometimes feel guilty after disappointing someone: For example, because they did not perform a task well, somebody else may not have received a reward. When individuals experience this guilt, they actually tend to behave less generously to everyone apart from the victim of this event. Therefore, guilt does not elicit charitable behavior in general (de Hooge, Nelissen, Breugelmans, & Zeelenberg, 2011).

Observation 16. If people feel that income varies excessively across households, they are not as inclined to volunteer their time to support some community and not as likely to feel connected to their neighborhood (Cozzolino, 2011& see trust).

Observation 17. Individuals are sometimes inclined to avoid disabled people, especially if they can ascribe this avoidance to some other consideration (see Snyder, Kleck, Strenta, & Mentzer, 1979). For example, in one study, participants were informed they could watch the same movie in one of two rooms. In each room was one other person. However, only one of these people was disabled. Participants were slightly more likely to choose the room with the disabled person However, if told the two movies were different, the majority of participants choose the room with the person who was not disabled& they could convince themselves they had chosen this room only because they preferred the corresponding movie.

Observation 18. In many contexts, such as weddings or birthdays, people specify a list of gifts they would like to receive. In general, the people who purchase a gift underestimate the extent to which the individual who will receive the gift will appreciate one of the items from this list. That is, people incorrectly assume their attempt to choose a gift themselves, and diverge from the list, demonstrates effort or consideration and will be appreciated. However, people who receive a gift are not as focused on the process, effort, or consideration (Gino & Flynn, 2011).

Observation 19. Often, people refrain from donating to a cause. For example, when asked to donate money to cancer research, they might refuse. Interestingly, after people are reminded of this refusal, they feel more vulnerable. If reminded they did not donate to cancer research, they are more likely to assume they could contract cancer (Kogut & Ritov, 2011).

Observation 20. When individuals feel they are unique and distinct in a group, they are more likely to feel that members of this collective are unified. They also more likely to feel a bond with this group (Jans, Postmes, & Van der Zee, 2011). When individuals feel the distinct qualities of all members are recognized, they feel the group will be able to integrate the unique skills and interests of each person. The team, therefore, is more likely to progress towards a shared goal, cultivating a sense of uniformity and cohesion.

Observation 21. Some leaders exhibit elevated levels of narcissism. That is, they perceive themselves as special, entitled, and superior. They do not feel they can learn information from other people. Relative to other leaders, these leaders tend to be initially perceived as effective. Yet, they actually compromise the level of cooperation in their workgroups or organizations and, ultimately, impair workplace performance. Therefore, narcissistic leaders tend to be overrated (Nevicka, Velden, De Hoogh, & Van Vianen, 2011).

Observation 22. After people eat and savor sweet food, rather than other tastes such as salty food, they are more willing to help other individuals. They are, for example, more inclined to participate in more scientific research. They are also more likely to perceive themselves as agreeable. Furthermore, people who like sweet food instead of, for example, salty or spicy foods are more likely to donate money or time to a cause& they are indeed more cooperative and agreeable (Meier, Moeller, Riemer-Peltz, & Robinson, 2011).

Observation 23. The contributions of employees are often underestimated. For example, in project teams, managers often do not appreciate all the work that employees completed. Interestingly, if their contributions involve deleting work, such as reducing the length of an article, rather than extending work, such as adding paragraphs to an article, their contributions are especially likely to be overlooked (Savitsk, Adelman, & Kruger, 2012).

Observation 24. As a series of studies have shown, when levels of education and intelligence in a nation are elevated, democracy, rule of law, and political liberty are more likely to improve over the next few decades (Rindermann, 2008). Education and intelligence, thus, improves the political system, even after controlling GDP. Specifically, education and intelligence facilitate the capacity of individuals to reach informed decisions, challenge the status quo, participate in the political process, and appreciate moral complexities. In these studies, education was equated to average number of years at school, intelligence was equated to performance on standardized IQ tests and mathematics tests, democracy was equated to the extent to which votes are not confined to the largest party as well as opportunities to express opinions that diverge from the government, rule of law was equated to judicial independence rather than military or other intervention, and political freedom was equated to freedom of expression and behavior.

Observation 25. If individuals feel excluded from a group, they become less charitable. They become less likely, for example, to donate money or time to help a cause. However, if they are granted an opportunity to touch or hold a teddy bear, this effect of social exclusion diminishes. That is, some exposure to an object that epitomizes warmth and connection alleviates some of the problems that arise whenever people feel excluded or ostracized (Tai, Zheng, & Narayanan, 2011).

Observation 26. In some teams, all the employees are assigned a distinct role. Each person, for example, may write a distinct part of a report or assemble a distinct part of an object. In these teams, the level of cooperation in these teams decreases if the members all share the same personality (Jans, Postmes, & Van der Zee, 2012). Presumably, when each employee completes a distinct role, they unconsciously feel that diversity and individuality are important. They will, therefore, prefer teams that are diverse in personality or other characteristics.

Observation 27. When pay varies dramatically between the different levels of management, the retention of managers tends to decline (Wade, O?Reilly, & Pollock, 2006). That is, inequality in pay seems to diminish loyalty and commitment to the organization.

Observation 28. After individuals reminisce about a nostalgic event in their lives, they become more willing to donate money or time to assist a charity (Zhou, Wildschut, Sedikides, Shi, & Feng, 2012& see nostalgia).

Observation 29. In general, compared to other people, individuals whose income and education is limited are actually more trusting, helpful, generous, and charitable (Piff, Kraus, Cote, Cheng, & Keltner, 2010). They are more willing to dedicate time to help other people. They are more willing to share their resources with other people. They also dedicate a greater proportion of their income to charity. In particular, as socioeconomic status decreases, people feel more compassion and adopt egalitarian values.

Observation 30. If the faces of men are wide, they are especially likely to sacrifice money to help people in their community or team--but only when they feel they are competing with another community or team. In contrast, if the faces of men are wide, they are especially likely to sacrifice money to help other people--but only when they do not feel they are competing with another community or team. That is, men with wide faces are especially motivated to protect their group& men with narrow faces are cooperative in general but not especially motivated to protect their group.

Observation 31. After nine months of military training, the degree to which people are agreeable, trusting, altruistic, sympathetic, and modest tends to diminish--and this change persists for at least five years (Jackson, Thoemmes, Jonkmann, Ludtke, & Trautwein, 2012).

Observation 32. After people travel up an escalator or stairs, to an elevated spot, they become more likely to behave cooperatively (Sanna, Chang, Miceli, & Lundberg, 2011). This effect has been ascribed to the inclination of individuals to associate height with virtue. For example, heaven is high and hell is low (see embodied mode of cognition).

Observation 33. Economic professors, relative to academics in other disciplines, are not as likely to donate to charity (Frank, Gilovich, & Regan, 1993).

Observation 34. After people wait for some important outcome they cannot control, such as the results of an exam or the decision of recruiters after a job interview, they become more inclined to donate money (see social exchange theory). On some level, perhaps unconsciously they feel compelled to sacrifice their needs and to help the universe, hoping to receive some assistance in return (Converse, Risen, & Carter, 2012).

Observation 35. After participants feel warm--for example, while they sit on a warm chair--they become more likely to value their relationships. They also feel more motivated than usual to be liked and accepted by their friends (Fay & Maner, 2012).

Observation 36. After people reflect upon times in which they helped another person, rather than received help from someone else, they become more charitable and cooperative. For example, if individuals write about several times in which they offered assistance to someone, they become more likely to donate money several weeks later (Grant & Dutton, 2012& see social exchange theory) .

Observation 37. Charities that focus their messages on specific activities, such as "distribute mosquito nets", are more likely to attract donations than charities that focus their messages on their overarching objects, such as "helps people across the globe" (Cryder, Loewenstein, & Scheines, 2013). Vivid details evoke stronger emotions, increasing sympathy& tangible details clarify the impact of these donations as well.

Observation 38. In general, individuals are more willing to donate money to disadvantaged people or threatened animals that seem to form a tight or cohesive group. They are, for example, be more likely to donate money to a group of poor children who are depicted as a family rather than as separate individuals (Smith, Faro, & Burson, 2013). Likewise, people are also more likely to donate money to support endangered animals that are portrayed as moving in unison (Smith, Faro, & Burson, 2013).

Observation 39. When seats are arranged in a circular or semi-circular pattern, rather than in a square or angular pattern, people are more likely to prioritize their need to belong over their need to feel special and unique (Zhu & Argo, 2013). For example, they are more inclined to like advertisements that emphasize familiar and friends. Likewise, they prefer messages they believe are endorsed by many other people in their community.

Observation 40. In rooms that are chaotic, with papers and objects strewn everywhere, rather than orderly, neat, and bare, people are more inclined to donate money to charities--even if nobody knows the amount they donated (Vohs, Redden, & Rahinel, 2013). In orderly locations, people feel the need to fulfil conventions that are perceived as socially desirable, such as donating money. That is, the order implies that conformity is rampant. Indeed, consistent with this possibility, people are not as creative in orderly rooms either, presumably because they do not want to challenge traditional practices.

Observation 41. After people think or read about a person who is sensitive, loyal, friendly, unselfish, and helpful, they feel warmer. In contrast, after people think or read about a person who is equally desirable but competent, effective, active, creative, precise, efficient, and resolute instead of friendly, they do not experience this sense of warmth (Szymkow, Chandler, IJzerman, Parzuchowski, & Wojciszke, 2013). That is, references to social qualities, such as warmth and sensitivity, increase the perceived temperature of the room. References to unfavorable social qualities, such as rude or unfriendly, tend to decrease the perceived temperature of the room. Presumably, especially during childhood, people learn that supportive, friendly, and helpful individuals often coincide with feelings of warmth.

Observation 42. After people are exposed to either pictures of money or words that are related to money, such as cash or capital, they are more likely to assume the existing hierarchies or inequalities in society are fair. They are not as inclined to challenge these inequalities or consider the injustices that may be inherent in an unmitigated free market system (Caruso, Vohs, Baxter, & Waytz, 2013).

Observation 43. Imagining feelings of pride and self-worth, rather than other positive emotions like joy or enjoyment, in the future increase the likelihood that people will cooperate with other individuals (Dorfman, Eyal, & Bereby-Meyer, 2014). For example, in one study, participants were asked to imagine a situation in the future that would evoke pride, joy, or enjoyment. If participants had imagined a situation that elicits pride, they were more likely than other individuals to demonstrate cooperation in a simulation task: That is, they were more willing to sacrifice their resources now to improve the community in the future. Arguably, people tend to associate acting responsibly and altruistically with feelings of pride& therefore these feelings tend to evoke this tendency to act responsibly and altruistically.

Observation 44. Some but not all managers exhibit the hallmarks of justice and fairness. That is, these managers grant opportunities to employees to contest or challenge decisions, share all the information they can with employees, and treat these individuals with respect and dignity. Yet, fewer studies have explored the circumstances that could encourage managers to act fairly and justly. As Scott, Garza, Conlon, and Kim (2014) showed, positive emotions tend to be positively associated with fairness and justice.

Observation 45. After people are asked to write an essay that describes how they would like to be remembered by future generations, they are more likely to support initiatives that improve the environment (Zaval, Markowitz, & Weber, 2015). For example, they are more inclined to donate to charities that advocate to support the environment. And they are more likely to engage in activities themselves that reduce damage to the environment. In particular, after individuals write these essays, they become motivated to leave a positive legacy. The future does not seem as hazy and trivial. Consequently, individuals are not as likely to dismiss the importance of problems that could unfold in the future.

Observation 46. If a disaster can partly be ascribed to the blunders of humans, people are not as inclined to donate money (Zagefka, Noor, Brown, de Moura, & Hopthrow, 2010). For example, individuals are not as inclined to donate money to victims of a flood after they discover that one of the dam walls was not built to standards--even if most of the victims did not participate in the construction of this wall.

Conflict, prejudice, and aggression

Observation 1. Unconfident employees are less likely to behave aggressively after they repeatedly observe personal details, such as their name or date of birth, superimposed on a photograph of a happy face (Baccus, Baldwin, & Packer, 2004& see Optimal self esteem). Hence, individuals should be encouraged to smile genuinely on their ID photographs.

Observation 2. After individuals are exposed to words that relate to hot temperatures, they subsequently tend to become more hostile (DeWall & Bushman, 2009).

Observation 3. After individuals deliberately use their non-preferred hand to brush their teeth, open doors, slice food, carry items, operate a computer mouse, drink from a glass, or stir sugar--every second day over the course of two weeks--they are less likely to act aggressively when provoked by their romantic partner (Finkel, DeWall, Slotter, Oaten, & Foshee, 2009& see Ego depletion).

Observation 4. In regions that are dry or hilly--and thus historically more suitable to herding--the murder rate tends to be high relative to regions that are flat, moist, and amenable to farming (Henry, 2009). In these dry and hilly regions, the distribution of wealth and status is more pronounced, which can often provoke aggression.

Observation 5. Individuals who strive to avoid conflicts prefer rounded rather than angular shapes--and this preference is more likely after they watch a cohesive family or work in a cooperative context. Conversely, individuals who engage in conflicts often prefer angular rather than rounded shapes (Zhang, Feick, & Price, 2006& see Self construal).

Observation 6. Sometimes, individuals reflect upon recent conflicts with their partners from the perspective of someone else--an independent person--instead of from their own perspective. If individuals do indeed reflect upon recent conflicts from the perspective of someone else, they are subsequently more likely to discuss the matter constructively rather than critically or aggressively (Ayduk & Kross, 2010).

Observation 7. If individuals hear someone over the phone that sounds very masculine or angry, they become more likely to assume this person belongs to an ethnic group that differs from their own (Miller, Maner, & Becker, 2010).

Observation 8. If individuals imagine themselves interacting with a member of some religious or social group, such as a Muslim person, their attitudes towards this constituency become more positive (Turner & Crisp, 2010& see Intergroup contact).

Observation 9. Some departments or teams are not as powerful, influential, or senior as other departments or teams. When departments or teams are not powerful, hierarchical workgroups are more likely than egalitarian workgroups to resolve conflicts effectively. When departments or teams are powerful, egalitarian workgroups are more likely to resolve conflicts effectively (Greer & van Kleef, 2010& see also shared leadership).

Observation 10. If individuals feel incompetent, they are more likely to act aggressively or to sabotage the work of other people. Interestingly, if individuals are granted a position of power, this effect of perceived incompetence on subsequent aggression is especially pronounced (Fast & Chen, 2009& see perceived power).

Observation 11. In general, adolescents are more likely to have committed an act of violence by the time they are 17 if they attended a very large school, of more than 2000 students, than if they attended a smaller school. This relationship persists even after parental education and level of interaction with convicted criminals are controlled (Leung & Ferris, 2008). If the school is very large, the benefits associated with economies of scale, such as greater choice of subjects, may be offset by the reduced sense of support and feelings of alienation. Similarly, large schools employ specialist teachers& these teachers do not interact frequently with particular students, undermining relationships.

Observation 12. After males participants observe attractive females, they are more likely to feel their nation should consider inciting a war against hostile countries. They also recognize words associated with war more rapidly. Hence, their inclination towards war is increased. These findings are consistent with the notion that war partly evolved to enable males to demonstrate their suitability as a mate, called sexual selection (Chang, Lu, Li, & Li, 2011).

Observation 13. If people feel their status may improve or diminish appreciably over the next few years, they become more prejudiced against other ethnicities. For example, if they are informed that job opportunities in their profession will either increase dramatically or decrease dramatically, they perceive other ethnicities less favorably (e.g., Guimond & Dambrun, 2002). Uncertainty tends to promote a preference towards conformity, biasing individuals against anyone who seems different.

Observation 14. Usually, after individuals reflect upon their mortality or death in the future, they experience negative feelings towards other races and ethnicities. They associate other races or ethnicities with negative words. However, if people first read stories, written by members of other races, about shared human experiences, such as their first visit to a beach, this problem diminishes (Motyl, Hart, Pyszczynski, Weise, Maxfield, & Siedel, 2011).

Observation 15. A portion of people believe that some groups or individuals are inherently superior to other groups or individuals and thus deserve special privileges. This belief often evokes racism and prejudice. Interestingly, after individuals reflect upon a time in which they helped the community in some way, they become less inclined to adopt this belief.

Observation 16. After individuals write about one of their most important values, such as compassion or learning, they are more likely to accept an offer or concession during a discussion that was convened to resolve a conflict.

Observation 17. In America, inequality in income is higher in some years than in other years. When income inequality is especially pronounced, the average level of happiness diminishes. Interestingly, as inequality in income soars, people tend to be less trusting of other individuals. This sense of distrust, rather than lower income itself, tends to decrease happiness (Oishi, Kesebir, & Diener, 2011).

Observation 18. After people are informed that students at their university tend to be more moral, and less prejudiced, than students at other universities, they become more inclined to discriminate against minorities when deciding upon who should be selected for some position. That is, once their group is demonstrated to be moral, they feel they have substantiated their moral credentials. They virtually feel they have earned the right to express prejudiced attitudes (Kouchaki, 2011).

Observation 19. When the capacity of individuals to choose their lifestyle is salient, people are not as likely to believe that women are the victims of discrimination at work. Even after participants are exposed to an advertisement about a book entitled "Choosing to leave: Women's experience away from the workforce", they were more likely to assume that gender discrimination is overrated (Stephens & Levine, 2011). Presumably, the concept of choice implies individual freedom, inhibiting the role of constraints in the environment, such as the inclination of powerful male leaders to choose men in leadership positions.

Observation 20. When individuals feel bored, they are especially likely to perceive their own group as superior to other groups. Prejudices are thus more pronounced in tedious settings (van Tilburg & Igou, 2011& see meaning maintenance model).

Observation 21. If people are encouraged to wash their hands with antibacterial hand wipes after using a keyboard, they perceive various communities, such as drug users, immigrants, and disadvantaged people, more favorably. That is, after people feel immune to disease, their prejudices diminish. Some prejudices evolved to prevent the spread of disease. Therefore, when diseases are unlikely, prejudices dissipate (Huang, Sedlovskaya, Ackerman,& Bargh, 2011).

Observation 22. The face and body of some people are asymmetrical. The left nose or arm of some people may, for example, be longer than is their right nose or arm. In contrast, the face and body of other people are symmetrical. If their face or body is indeed symmetrical, individuals are more likely to perceive themselves as aggressive but less likely to perceive themselves as empathic and agreeable (Holtzman, Augustine, & Senne, 2011). One explanation is that aggressive rather than agreeable behaviour is more likely to be preferred at times in which mates seek immediate pleasure rather than committed relationships. Symmetrical faces and bodies were also more likely to be preferred at these times. Hence, aggressive instead of agreeable behaviour tends to coincide with symmetrical faces and bodies.

Observation 23. Often, recruiters will evaluate male applicants more favorably than female applicants, even when their CVs are the same. This gender bias is especially pronounced in recruiters who support a conservative ideology--particularly when the setting reinforces gender stereotypes. For example, when the CEO is male or the primary caregiver in a family is female, gender stereotypes are reinforced and conservative recruiters are especially likely to prefer males. That is, conservative people are especially likely to be biased by the prevailing stereotypes, norms, or traditions of their society (Hoyt, 2012).

Observation 24. People who are overweight are often the victims of unfavourable attitudes and discrimination. However, if individuals imagine an interaction with an overweight person that evokes feelings of nostalgia, rather than neutral feelings, these unfavourable attitudes dissipate. Instead, individuals feel a sense of connection to overweight people. They are more likely to feel positive feelings and attitudes towards these people (Turner, Wildschut, & Sedikides, 2012).

Observation 25. Sometimes, employees need to learn the relationships between other people. For example, they may need to learn an organizational chart. If the chart is a simple hierarchy, with a CEO at the top, three general managers at the next level, and three middle managers under each of these general managers, individuals can easily memorize the relationships between these people. If the chart is not as straightforward, or the CEO is positioned at the bottom, individuals cannot as easily memorize the relationships between these people. Interestingly, if a chart cannot be learnt or memorized easily, people become more likely to assume that some segments of society are inherently superior to other segments of society (Zitek & Tiedens, 2011)--an assumption that significantly increases the likelihood of prejudice (see social dominance orientation).

Observation 26. Some people feel that all races and ethnicities should be treated equivalently, called a color-blind ideology. Other people feel the distinct qualities and customs of each race and ethnicity should be embraced, called a multicultural ideology. If people adopt a color-blind, rather than multicultural, ideology when they interact with a member of a minority community, a problem often unfolds. The member of this minority community is more likely to feel exhausted. In particular, their performance on subsequent tasks that demand concentration tends to diminish (Holoien & Shelton, 2012). Specifically, if people embrace this color-blind ideology, they tend to demonstrate more prejudice inadvertently. The other individuals, consequently, feels uneasy, prompting anxiety and ultimately exhaustion (see intergroup ideologies).

Observation 27. Even today, many people express racist, sexist, and prejudiced remarks towards specific communities. When members of these targeted communities confront this prejudice, they are perceived unfavorably by observers. In contrast, when members of other communities confront this prejudice, they are perceived as likeable, respectable, and moral by observers. To illustrate, if African Americans hear someone say ?Blacks are lazy?, and then confront this comment with a remark like ?I feel that?s racist and inappropriate?, they are actually more likely to be perceived unfavorably by someone watching this incident. In contrast, if people who are not African American say ?That?s racist and inappropriate I feel?, they tend to be perceived as likeable, respectable, and moral by someone watching this incident. Therefore, to curb prejudice, people who are not the target of prejudicial remarks should be encouraged to challenge such comments.

Observation 28. In some nations or states, males feel the need to demonstrate their masculinity to protect themselves and their families from threats, called honor states. The southern and western states of America, apart from Hawaii and Alaska, are often regarded as honor states. Interestingly, in these honor states, the rate of accidents, such as traffic incidents, is especially high in both men and women (Barnes, Brown, & Tamborski, 2012). Furthermore, the rate of suicide is also pronounced, both in men and women (Osterman & Brown, 2011). Finally, symbols of violence, such as knifes at school, are more prevalent (Brown, Osterman, & Barnes, 2009).

Observation 29. Several minutes after people write about a close friendship or an experience with a person who belongs to another race, they actually become more prejudiced. For example, they are more inclined to choose a job applicant of their own ethnicity (Bradley-Geist, King, Skorinko, Hebl, & McKenna, 2010). That is, if people can demonstrate their willingness to interact with other ethnicities, they feel they have established their moral credentials. Consequently, they believe they can discriminate against other minorities without being perceived as immoral (see also Monin & Miller, 2001).

Observation 30. In teams in which everyone shares the same racial background, such as Anglo Americans, the men tend to speak more often than do the women and are rated as more persuasive. However, if the teams are more diverse in race, this disparity between the sexes decreases: The women may even speak as often and seem as confident as the men (Toosi, Sommers, & Ambady, 2012). Arguably, in more diverse teams, the interpersonal skills of women are more likely to be valued.

Observation 31. Many people assume that women are not as proficient as men on certain tasks--such as assembling pieces, like Lego blocks, to construct a model. The proportion of women in teams, however, does not seem to decrease performance on these tasks. Nevertheless, as the proportion of women increase, the members of a team are not as likely to perceive one another as competent, effective, or cohesive (West, Heilman, Gullett, Moss-Racusin, & Magee, 2012). Even the men are more likely to be evaluated unfavorably. Arguably, as the number of women in the team increase, the entire collective is perceived as feminine. Many people assume that females are deficient on these tasks. This stereotype is then applied to the overall team, including the men (see social role theory).

Observation 32. Most companies have developed a sexual harassment policy. These policies tend to prohibit unwanted advances, sexist jokes, and other offensive behaviors towards women. After individuals read the sexual harassment policies of their company, they become, perhaps unconsciously, more likely to associate males with high status, as gauged by the implicit association test (Tinkler, Li, & Mollborn, 2007). Therefore, in one sense, these policies can ignite one unintended consequence: the belief that males are superior in status.

Observation 33. People who value fame and fortune over personal growth, contributions to the community, and relationships are more likely to demonstrate racism. They are, for example, more threatened when other ethnicities become more prominent in their society (Duriez, Meeus, & Vansteenkiste, 2012& see goal contents theory).

Observation 34. If individuals feel their nation is very diverse and heterogeneous, in which each region or community conforms to different customs and values, they are more likely to feel unfavorable attitudes towards immigrants. They perceive immigration as a threat to the nation and they exhibit prejudice towards other ethnicities. This pattern of findings, however, is observed only in people who feel a strong sense of connection or identity with their country (Falomir-Pichastor & Frederic, 2012). Presumably, individuals like to perceive the group with which identify as homogenous.

Observation 35. Unsurprisingly, after people imagine a positive interaction with someone from another ethnicity or from a stigmatized group, their prejudice diminishes. Interestingly however, these images are especially effective if individuals had earlier imagined a negative interactions with someone from this ethnicity or stigmatized group (Birtel & Crisp, 2012). That is, a sequence of negative and then positive images are especially likely to curb the anxieties people feel while interacting with unfamiliar groups (see intergroup contact).

Observation 36. After people watch a friend or colleague behave in an unfriendly manner towards some of another race or ethnicity--such as sit far away and seem aloof rather than animated--their unconscious or implicit attitudes towards this race and ethnicity tend to sour (Castelli, Carraro, Pavan, Murelli, & Carraro, 2012).

Observation 37. Although some diversity programs are effective, other diversity programs can be detrimental. Kalev, Dobbin, and Kelly (2006) collated over 30 years of data from 700 organizations to examine the effects of these programs. As they showed, affirmative action plans, task forces and committees that are granted the responsibility to promote diversity, and diversity managers increase the proportion of women and African Americans in management positions within American companies. Likewise, mentoring programs increased the proportion of African American women in these positions. Yet, diversity training, on average, diminished the proportion of African American women in management positions.

Observation 38. After people read about the positive attributes of a minority race or ethnicity, they actually become more likely to demonstrate prejudiced attitudes. For example, in one study, conducted by Kay, Day, Zanna, and Nussbaum (2013), European American participants read a fictitious article that depicted African American as either athletic or violent. Next, they received considerable information about 10 people, two of whom were assigned stereotypically African American names. Finally, participants were instructed to rate these people on a series of attributes. If participants had read about the athleticism of African American, they were subsequently more likely to rate the two people with African Americans names as violent and aggressive.

Observation 39. Some people believe the behavior of groups, such as ethnicities, can change across time and is greatly influenced by the sociopolitical environment. Other people believe the behavior of groups tends to remain fixed or stable over time and is not influenced by the sociopolitical environment. In general, as Halperin, Crisp, Husnu, Trzesniewski, Dweck, and Gross (2012) showed, if people assume that groups can change over time, they are more willing to interact with diverse communities.

Observation 40. After individuals briefly reflect upon differences between themselves and past generations, they become more willing to engage in behaviors that enhance the environment than do individuals who briefly reflect upon differences between themselves and future generations. For example, even after participants were told a survey was designed to examine differences across generations from 1960 to 2010 rather than 2010 to 2060, they expressed more willingness to use public transport instead of cars, unplug electronics, use cold instead of hot water, and stop purchasing from companies that oppose policies that advocate climate change (Ferguson, Branscombe, & Reynolds, 2011). They also became more interested in the issue of sustainability and were more willing to endorse tax policies that reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Presumably, when people contrast themselves to past generations, they feel more receptive to sustainability in comparison& they perceive themselves, therefore as interested in sustainability, promoting sustainable behavior.

Observation 41. The face of some people is quite wide. That is, the width, relative to the height, of their face, is greater than average. These individuals are more likely to express racist attitudes and are less inclined to inhibit their natural tendencies, partly because facial width coincides with elevated levels of testosterone. They may, for example, agree with statements like "I would rather not have Blacks live in the same apartment building I live in" (Hehman, Leitner, Deegan, & Gaertner, 2013). However, implicit attitudes towards other races, as gauged by the implicit association test, does not seem to depend on this facial characteristic (Hehman et al., 2013).

Observation 42. After people are exposed to unconventional music that diverges from their expectations, rather than conventional music, they become more inclined to favor their in-group over their out-group (Maher, Van Tilburg, & Van Den Tol, 2013). That is, intergroup biases tend to become more pronounced. For example, they are not as inclined to help minority groups.

Observation 43. When people are motivated to perceive their nation as superior, they tend to overestimate the physical size of this country. For example, people tend to overestimate the physical size of their country, especially if they perceive the citizens of their nation as superior. They also underestimate the physical size of their rival nations (Lorenzi-Cioldi, Chatard, Marques, Selimbegovid, Konan, & Faniko, 2013).

Observation 43. People who are often angry are more inclined to like spicy foods than are their peers (Ji, Ding, Deng, Ma, & Jiang, 2013). That is, people associate spice with anger. Physiologically, consuming spicy foods and experiencing anger evoke similar physiological responses, such as a red face and increases in body heat.

Observation 44. If men feel ashamed of their body or masculinity, they are more likely to act aggressively towards women, especially in romantic relationships (Mescher & Rudman, 2014). For example, in one study, some male participants, who had submitted a photo to a woman, were told they she was not attracted to their appearance. These men were more likely than participants who had not received this feedback to concede they are aroused by rape or other variants of sexual aggression, particularly if they felt ashamed. Only rejections from a female rather than male evoked this sequence of reactions. This finding aligns to other results that show that men, after failing a strength test, were more likely to act aggressively towards a woman who had criticized their behavior. Arguably, when individuals feel their status is elevated, they are actually more likely to act aggressively towards another social category& that is, status implies that such aggression is likely to be effective. So, if people feel the need to foster a sense of status, they may become more likely to act aggressively.

Observation 45. Sporting teams that wear black uniforms tend to be more aggressive (Frank & Gilovich, 1988). When hockey or American football teams change their uniforms to black, they are penalized more often for various offences or transgressions, for example. The players themselves become more aggressive, but they are also perceived to be more aggressive by referees.

Observation 46. When people feel that individuals shift jobs often, called high job mobility, they are more inclined to exclude people who had acted dishonestly. They feel that excluding people, such as ignoring someone, is easier (Whitson, Wang, Kim, Cao, & Scrimpshire, 2015).

Evaluations of other people

Observation 1. Individuals can more readily decipher the emotions, feelings, and intentions of a person who is located near their left rather than right shoulder, which improves communication and facilitates social interactions (Puccinelli, Tickle-Degnen, & Rosenthal, 2004).

Observation 2. When individuals speak to someone in another country--even someone they know well--they are more likely to ascribe errors to deficiencies in this person, not other causes (Henderson, Fujita, Trope, & Liberman, 2006& see Construal level theory).

Observation 3. When individuals attempt to conceal their worst qualities in conversations, they are less inclined to like the other person (Srachman & Gable, 2006).

Observation 4. When individuals watch a fleeting slice of some conversation, rather than an entire interaction or speech, they can more accurately ascertain whether the message was true or false (Albrechtsen, Meissner, & Susa, 2009).

Observation 5. After individuals describe another person--a person who is not located in the immediate vicinity--as conscientious and ambitious rather than obliging and pleasant, they are more likely to be perceived as powerful by anyone in the room (Ames, Bianchi, & Magee, 2010). If individuals describe another person positively, rather than negatively, they are more likely to be perceived as admired and likeable.

Observation 6. A person is more likely to assume that individuals in a photograph--individuals they have not met--are stable rather than vulnerable, with a high self esteem, if these people in the photo place their arms behind their back (Naumann, Vazire, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2009).

Observation 7. After individuals speak to a close friend or relative--or even after they are subliminally exposed to the name of a close friend or relative--they become more likely to forgive other people for offensive or inappropriate acts (Karremans & Aarts, 2007& see forgiveness).

Observation 8. If individuals exhibit many symptoms of Type 2 diabetes, such as shortness of breath at night or numbness in the feet, they are less inclined than other people to forgive someone who had acted offensively or inappropriately (DeWall, Pond, & Bushman, 2010& see forgiveness).

Observation 9. Men with brown eyes tend to be perceived as more dominant than men with blue eyes. However, if lens are used to modify the color of their eyes, the extent to which they are perceived as dominant does not change (Kleisner, Kocnar, Rubesova, & Jaroslav, 2010). Conceivably, the gene that affects eye color also influences other features that affect dominance. Alternatively, people with brown and blue eyes are treated differently, ultimately shaping disparities in their behavior (Kleisner, Kocnar, Rubesova, & Jaroslav, 2010).

Observation 10. Relative to people whose socioeconomic status is high, people whose socioeconomic status is low are more effective at deciphering the emotions that someone else is feeling (Kraus, Stephane, & Keltner, 2010& see empathic accuracy).

Observation 11. To some extent, the personality of individuals can be estimated from their texts. Extraverted people refer to more personal pronouns, such as I and me. Individuals who exhibit neuroticism are more likely to express negative emotions, whereas individuals who are very agreeable tend to express positive emotions and seldom if ever swear (Holtgraves, 2011).

Observation 12. Compared to individuals who seldom express negative comments about people who are not in the room, individuals who often express negative comments about people who are not in the room are usually perceived as neither likeable nor influential (Farley, 2011& Gawronski & Walther, 2008). That is, people who gossip tend to be perceived unfavorably.

Observation 13. Some people exhibit ambivalence, a combination of positive and negative emotions. That is, sometimes they might seem sad, staring downwards, for example. Seconds later they may seem angry, frowning and leaning forwards. Then, they might seem happy, raising their eyebrows and maintaining some eye contact. Compared to people who exhibit other emotions, people who seem ambivalent are perceived as submissive and torn. These ambivalent individuals seem to deliberate very carefully. Consequently, when people converse or negotiate with an ambivalent individual, they tend to dominate the conversation (Rothman, 2011). In short, people who shift their mood frequently seem more submissive.

Observation 14. In workgroups of 20 or so people, in the first few weeks, people who are extraverted rather than introverted are perceived as especially influential in group decisions. However, after several months, the people who are the most intelligent, as assessed by Ravens Progressive Matrices, are perceived as particularly influential in group decisions. Finally, after two thirds of a year, the people who are most creative, flexible, and stable are perceived as the most influential to decisions (Deuling, Denissen, van Zalk, Meeus, & van Aken, 2011). Thus, which personality traits are respected by team members varies across time.

Observation 15. In a work or academic setting, a person who is described as warm, sociable, and outgoing is often assumed to be incompetent. Furthermore, especially in a social setting, someone who is described as competent, smart, and diligent is often assumed to be cold. That is, when people are informed that someone is positive on one characteristic, they assume this person is deficient on another important attribute. Females are especially likely to be victims of this tendency, called the innuendo effect. This innuendo effect can be ascribed to the inclination of individuals to assume that each person overall is average, unless informed otherwise. Alternatively, this observation can be ascribed to the assumption that people, when describing someone, tend to emphasize positive attributes rather than negative characteristics (Kervyn, Bergsieker, & Fiske, 2012).

Observation 16. Individuals will often, when told about someone who was assaulted by strangers, partly blame the victim. That is, they believe the victim could have prevented this incident. After individuals watch an amusing video, and thus experience a positive mood, this inclination to blame the victim diminishes (Goldenberg & Forgas, 2011). That is, when people feel positive, they do not dismiss threatening information, called the mood as resource effect. They can, therefore, accept the premise that people cannot always prevent tragedies.

Observation 17. Unsurprisingly, the CV of applicants affects the likelihood they will be hired. Interestingly, if the CV is aesthetically pleasing, recruiters assume the applicant is likely to be conscientious, methodical, diligent, and motivated, vital for roles that demand effort and independence. If the CV indicates the applicant is a member of a professional society, an office holder, and a volunteer of some community service, this person is assumed to be especially capable in social settings (Chen, Huang, & Lee, 2011).

Observation 18. In general, people are more inclined to like someone whose name is easier to pronounce. Furthermore, compared to people whose name are easier to pronounce, people whose name is difficult to pronounce occupy more senior positions in law firms (Laham, Koval, & Alter, 2012).

Observation 19. During some performance appraisals, employees are permitted to rate themselves, called self-ratings. If individuals rate themselves very favorably, they are more likely to be rated favorably by their manager--regardless of their actual performance (Chen & Kemp, 2012). Managers are biased by these self-ratings even if informed this information is misguided or biased. As these results imply, self-ratings, although lenient and often unrelated to the assessments of managers or peers, tend to distort decisions about promotion or pay. Furthermore, these findings indicate that people who overestimate themselves are, often, more likely to be promoted (see anchoring and adjustment).

Observation 20. When people see a photo of someone, their capacity to predict the characteristics of this person actually diminishes. That is, photos can be misleading rather than helpful. In one study, participants were asked to predict whether a set of individuals exhibit various characteristics, such as whether or not they use drugs, have been arrested, own a gun, have participated in a fist fight, have earned a college degree, and so forth. If the participants observed two photos of each person, their ratings were quite inaccurate. In contrast, if participants did not observe any photos, but instead merely specified the most common answer to each question--such as ?No? to the question ?Have you been arrested?--their ratings were more accurate (Olivia & Todorov, 2010).

Observation 21. In general, couples who travel to work in the same direction rather than opposing directions are more likely to feel very satisfied with their relationship (Huang, Dong, Dai, & Wyer Jr, 2012). Similarly, after two people observe each other walk in the same direction, even if to different locations, they are more likely to evaluate one another favorably (Huang, Dong, Dai, & Wyer Jr, 2012). Two people who walk in the same direction often, although unconsciously, feel they share a goal in common, translating to a sense of connection or closeness.

Observation 22. In general, people obviously do not like someone who demonstrates hypocrisy. They do not like someone who advocates a principle, such as exercise is important, and two weeks later initiates an act that violates this principle, such as languishes on the couch all day. But, if the order of these events is reversed, the hypocrisy is not as salient. That is, people will often like someone who initiates an act and then, two weeks later, advocates a principle that contradicts this act. Individuals are not as likely to perceive this sequence of events as hypocritical (Barden, Rucker, & Petty, 2005). They feel, perhaps unconsciously, the person may have changed after committing some action.

Observation 23. In general, managers or recruiters perceive female professionals or managers who are not parents as more competent, effective, and productive than female professionals or managers who are parents. This bias against parents, however, does not extend to male professionals or managers (Heilman & Okimoto, 2008). Arguably, because motherhood typifies the feminine role, female employees who are parents are perceived as quintessentially female-?that is, nurturing and caring rather than powerful and effective.

Observation 24. People who listen well--encouraging other individuals to speak openly rather than interrupt or criticize--tend to be perceived as more influential (Ames, Maissen, & Brockner, 2012).

Observation 25. If people are extraverted, their shoes are more likely to be worn and the tops of these shoes are higher. If people are agreeable, their shoes do not seem as pricy or masculine, as judged by other individuals. If people report low levels of neuroticism, their shoes tend to be more masculine and worn& the brand name is also more likely to be conspicuous. Finally, if people are often concerned they will be rejected, their shoes are not as likely to be colorful or worn (Gillath, Bahns, Ge, and Crandall, 2012).

Observation 26. People tend to assume that attractive women are more extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, creative, and stable than other women. Yet, research that has examined the personality of women did not confirm these possibilities (Segal-Caspi, Roccas, & Sagiv, 2012). Instead, attractive women are more likely than other women to value conformity and tradition over diversity or learning. For example, they are not especially inclined to embrace diverse opinions or practices. They are also not particularly inclined to extend their knowledge or demonstrate creativity. Instead, they like to honor traditional practices and conform to regulations or customs (Segal-Caspi, Roccas, & Sagiv, 2012). Arguably, people who value the norms of society are especially motivated to become attractive. Alternatively, people who are not attractive may question the norms of society.

Observation 27. Sometimes, people need to gauge the emotions of someone else, merely by observing the behavior of this individual. They may need to decide, for example, whether this person is angry, frustrated, anxious, or dejected. When people are told they will receive a financial bonus if they gauge these emotions accurately, their performance on this task actually deteriorates (Ma-Kellams & Blascovich, 2013). Financial rewards diminish the degree to which people define themselves by their relationships, impeding their sensitivity to the needs and emotions of other people.

Observation 28. Attractive people are perceived as more competent (Langlois et al., 2000), ethical (Dion et al. 1972), nurturing (Dion et al. 1972), and skillful (Dion et al. 1972& Hamermesh & Biddle 1994).

Observation 29. In general, people are more likely to appreciate someone with generalist rather than specialist skills, called the generalist bias (Wang & Murnighan, 2013). For example, supporters of a basketball club prefer players with a broad range of skills, rather than players whose primary ability is to shoot three-point scores--even if evidence indicates that such a specialist capability is vital to the team. Similarly, recruiters would prefer a HR person who has undertaken a range of roles over the years than a HR person who has specialized in compensation--even when seeking someone with expertise in compensation. This bias partly arises because people tend to prefer someone who is moderate on all attributes rather than excellent on some attributes but deficient on other attributes& that is, people are averse to extremes.

Observation 30. After people experience a sense of power, they are more inclined to overestimate the support and loyalty of their allies (Brion & Anderson, 2013). That is, they often incorrectly believe that other individuals are willing to assist and support them on various matters. Because they overestimate this support, called the illusion of alliance, they are frequently exploited unexpectedly.

Observation 31. When people sit on a wobbly chair and lean on a wobbly table, they are more inclined to perceive relationships as brittle and also become more likely to value traits that relate to stability, such as trustworthy, reliable partners (Kille, Forest, & Wood, 2013).

Observation 32. Relative to individuals born to younger parents, individuals born to older parents are more likely to be attracted to older faces (Heffernan & Fraley, 2013). That is, in general, individuals perceive older faces as less attractive than younger faces, but this tendency is not as pronounced in people born to older parents. Likewise, people born to smokers are more likely to be attracted to smokers later in life (Aronsson, Lind, Ghirlanda, & Enquist, 2011). Arguably, individuals perceive the qualities of their parents as more familiar, and familiarity often biases the extent to which anything is regarded as attractive or safe. Yet, Enquist, Aronsson, Ghirlanda, Jansson, and Jannini (2011) showed that people are attracted to someone who is pregnant or lactating if their mother was pregnant or lactating while they were between 1.5 to 5 years of age, suggesting a critical sensitive period.

Observation 33. As closing time in a pub or bar approaches, single people tend to perceive members of the opposite sex as increasingly attractive (Madey, Simo, Dillworth, Kemper, Toczynski, & Perella, 1996). That is, to single people, later in the night people seem more attractive than earlier in the night. This finding persists when the study is confined to participants who do not seem drunk (Pennebaker, Dyer, Caulkins, Litowitz, Ackreman, Anderson, & McGraw, 1979). Arguably, as closing time approaches, the number of people who can be approached seems scarcer. Anything that is scarcer tends to be valued more.

Observation 34. People tend to associate specific names with undesirable attributes. For example, in Germany, teachers tend to associate with name Kevin with quarrelsome people. Individuals with names that people associate with undesirable attributes are more likely to be rejected by other people. In addition, their self-esteem tends to be lower, and they are more likely to smoke (Gebauer, Leary, & Neberich, 2013).

Observation 35. During interviews, men who apply for jobs are not as likely to be accepted if some of their clothes are red. For example, in photographs, men with red instead of green on their shirts are not as likely to look intelligent--especially if judged by someone who is deciding on their suitability for a job (Maier, Elliot, Lee, Lichtenfeld, Barchfeld, & Pekrun, 2013). In addition, men with a red tie, instead of a green tie, are perceived as less likely to earn a significant income in the future or to be effective as a team leader. In contexts that revolve around achievement and competence, such as job applications, people tend to associate red with incompetence and failure, epitomized by red crosses. This finding aligns to the color-in-context theory (Elliot & Maier 2012), in which the effect of colors depends on the context.

Observation 36. Expertise in music improves the capacity of people to decipher the emotions that someone is feeling while listening to this person speak. For example, in one study, conducted by Lima and Castro (2011), 40 trained musicians and 40 people with no musical training, ranging from 18 to 60 years of age, listened to short neutral sentences, spoken in a tone that expressed anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, or no emotion. The musicians were more likely than were the other individuals to guess the correct emotion--but were no different on intelligence, education, or personality. This finding confirms the common assumption that music training affects the processing of pitch in speech, vital to the recognition of emotions.

Observation 37. When women are in the fertile phase of their menstrual cycle, or are seeking a temporary relationship, they are more likely to choose taller men. In one study, conducted by Pawlowski and Jasienska (2005), women observed photos of couples in which the height difference between the two individuals was varied. Their task was to identify the best match. On fertile days, about 2 weeks after menstruation, women tended to choose couples in which the man was significantly taller. On other days, this preference dissipated. Furthermore, women were more likely to prefer taller men when seeking temporary rather than enduring relationships. Arguably, during ovulation, women are especially sensitive to cues that could increase the likelihood their offspring will survive.

Observation 38. Sometimes, when people visit the GP or another doctor, they need to decide which of two or more chairs to choose. In general, if people are depressed or anxious, they are more inclined to choose to sit on the left instead of the right side of the doctor (Luck, 2006). When people sit on the left side of a doctor, their right eye sees the room better. This information then travels to the left hemisphere-and this hemisphere tends to process information more systematically than intuitively. Perhaps, if people are depressed or anxious, they like to process information more systematically and carefully.

Observation 39. Women tend to rate good looking men as more attractive if these men are medium in status rather than high in status (Chu, Hardaker, & Lycett, 2007). In one study, photographs of men were categorized as very good looking, average, or not good looking. Next, the researchers developed a contrived description of each man, such as his attributes, as well as his job. The jobs were high, medium, or low in status, such as an architect, teacher, or postman respectively. Women then read these descriptions and observed the photographs, before rating the degree to which they perceive these men as attractive as future partners. Good looking men were rated as more attractive, but especially if they were medium rather than high or low in status. Males who were good looking and high in status might have been perceived as potentially unfaithful.

Observation 40. People who are more easier to see--such as individuals who sit in an illuminated rather than dark spot--tend to be perceived as more influential and likeable. For example, in one study, conducted by Forgas (2015), participants read excerpts about various people. The photo of these people were either large and colorful or smaller and grey. Participants who were happy rated the people in large, colorful photos favorably. Participants who were sad were not affected by the color or size of these photos. When people experience negative emotions, their judgments more depend on features of the stimuli, such as the behavior of people, than expectations, assumptions, or heuristics. When people experience positive emotions, their judgments often depend on heuristics, such as the tendency to trust anything that can be processed easily and fluently.

Observation 41. People are more likely to be perceived as manipulative, incompetent, and unlikeable after they indicate they are friends with somebody famous, like Roger Federer (Lebherz, Jonas, & Tomljenovic, 2009).

Observation 42. When individuals are exposed to a sample of sweat, extracted from a happy person, instead of a fearful or unemotional person, they are more likely to exhibit a happy facial expression. They also can identify larger letters, composed of many smaller letters, quicker than vice versa--a tendency that is common when people feel happy (de Groot et al., 2015). Yet, this sweat does not increase ratings of Chinese characters, another measure of happiness. Taken together, these findings indicate that chemical signals that one person releases can affect the feelings of other individuals, but does not seem to affect tasks that are related to language. This pattern is consistent with the notion that olfaction and language are often dissociated from each other. A debriefing procedure indicated that individuals were not consciously aware of whether the odor was pleasant or not. The underlying mechanisms have been explored to some degree. Adrenalin increases the production of sweat in the armpit. The concentration of specific chemicals, like androstadienone, is especially high when people are happy. Overall, sensitivity to the chemicals and thus emotions of someone else can facilitate empathy and ultimately communication

Observation 43. Women tend to rate photographs of men as more attractive if the photos are positioned at the top of a page. Men tend to rate photographs of women as more attractive if the photos are positioned at the bottom of a page (Meier & Dionne, 2009). The top of a page tends to be associated with status. Consequently, these findings align to the notion that women, but not men, prefer their partner to be high in status.

Observation 44. Women tend to be perceived as attractive by a man by if their facial features are symmetrical and similar to average (Munoz-Reyes, Iglesias-Julios, Pita, & Turiegano, 2015).


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