This page presents stubs--that is, preliminary extracts--about specific theories.
When individuals experience some aversive event--an unfair criticism, for example--they subsequently become more inclined to act aggressively towards anyone who acts even marginally offensively or critically. In other words, individuals often displace their anger and hostility from one person to another person.
Interestingly, however, individuals do not direct this displaced aggression towards someone who they perceive as similar or connected to themselves. Cognitive neoassociation theory, propounded by Berkowitz (1983, 1988, 1989, 1993&
Finman & Berkowitz, 1989), can accommodate this finding as well as many other observations. This finding extends the frustration-aggression hypothesis, popularized by Dollard et al. (1939).
According to the cognitive neoassociation theory, several stages or phases of cognitive processes underpin such displaced aggression. First, an aversive event--a physical attack, aloud noise, an uncomfortable temperature, the withdrawal of resources, or exclusion from some collective, for instance--evokes negative affective states. These negative states automatically activate motor responses, memories, thoughts, and feelings that correspond to either fight or flight inclinations. That is, adverse events elicit physical and psychological correlates of attack and anger or escape and fear.
Several factors determine whether fight or flight inclinations will prevail. First, the characteristics of individuals, such as their physical size, might determine whether attack or escape is more likely. Second, the context, such as the relative strength of opponents, might also affect these inclinations.
Cues that tend to coincide with these aversive events will also become associated with these fight or flight inclinations. If individuals often experience an inclination to attack when a gun is in the room, over time, this object will evoke a fight rather than flight reaction.
As a consequence, extensive emotional networks develop over time. Concepts that are frequently activated simultaneously, such as fear and shoot, are strongly associated with each other. When one of these concepts is activated, such as when individuals hear a gunshot, associated concepts are activated as well, such as the experience of fear.
Second, only after these automatic responses are evoked, subsequent cognitions can shape the reactions and experiences of individuals. During this stage, individuals consider the causes of their unpleasant experiences. In addition, they clarify the precise nature of these feelings, distinguishing between distinct forms of anger for example. Furthermore, they reflect upon the consequences of their actions and regulate their responses accordingly.
Hence, their initial reactions of anger or fear are clarified, modified, enriched, differentiated, amplified, or inhibited, provided that individuals are motivated to engage in these cognitive processes. The emotional schemas of individuals determine the interpretions and decisions they will extract.
APPLICATION OF COGNITIVE NEOASSOCIATION THEORY
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Berkowitz, L. (1988). Frustrations, appraisals, and aversively stimulated aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 3-11.
Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59-73.
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Finman, R., & Berkowitz, L. (1989). Some factors influencing the effect of depressed mood on anger and overt hostility toward another.Journal of Research in Personality
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Stapel, D. A., & Blanton, H. (2004). From seeing to being: Subliminal social comparisons affect implicit and explicit self evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 468-481.
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Stapel, D. A., Koomen, W., & Ruys, K. (2002). The effects of diffuse and distinct affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 60-74.
Stapel, D. A., Koomen, W., & van der Pligt, J. (1996). The referents of trait inferences: The impact of trait concepts versus actor-trait links on subsequent judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 437-450.
Stapel, D. A., Koomen, W., & Zeelenberg, M. (1998). The impact of accuracy motivation on interpretation, comparison, and correction processes: Accuracy Motivation x Knowledge accessibility effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 878-893.
Stapel, D. A., & Semin, G. R. (2007). The magic spell of language: Linguistic categories and their perceptual consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 34-48.
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Hayes, S. C., & Gifford, E. V. (1997). The trouble with language: Experiential avoidance, rules, and the nature of verbal events. Psychological Science, 8, 170-173.
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Hayes, S. C., & Hayes, L. J. (1989). The verbal action of the listener as a basis for rule-governance. In S. C. Hayes (Ed.), Rule-governed behavior: Cognition, contingencies, and instructional control (pp. 153-190). New York: Plenum.
Hayes, S. C., & Wilson, K. G. (1993). Some applied implications of a contemporary behavior-analytic account of verbal events. The Behavior Analyst, 16, 283-301.
Hayes, S. C., Zettle, R. D., & Rosenfarb, I. (1989). Rule following. In S. C. Hayes (Ed.), Rule-governed behavior: Cognition, contingencies, and instructional control, (pp. 191-220). New York: Plenum
Zettle, R. D., & Hayes, S. C. (1982). Rule-governed behavior: A potential theoretical framework for cognitive-behavior therapy. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in cognitive-behavioral research and therapy (pp. 73-118). New York: Academic.
Barnes, D., & Roche, B. (1996). Relational frame theory and stimulus equivalence are fundamentally different: A reply to Saunders' commentary.The Psychological Record
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Barnes, D., Browne, M., Smeets, P. M., & Roche, B. (1995). A transfer of functions and a conditional transfer of functions through equivalence relations in three- to six-year old children. The Psychological Record, 45, 405-430.
Barnes, D., McCullagh, P. D., & Keenan, M. (1990). Equivalence class formation in non-hearing impaired children and hearing impaired children. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 1-11.
Barnes-Holmes, D. & Barnes-Holmes, Y. (2000). Explaining complex behavior: Two perspectives on the concept of generalized operant classes. The Psychological Record, 50, 251-265.
Barnes-Holmes, D., O'Hora, D., Roche, B., Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R. T., & Lyddy, F. (2001). Understanding and verbal regulation. In. S. C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes, & B. Roche (Eds), Relational frame theory: A post-Skinnerian account of language and cognition (pp. 103-117). New York: Plenum Press.
Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., Roche, B., & Smeets, P. M. (2001). Exemplar training and a derived transformation of function in accordance with symmetry. The Psychological Record, 51, 287-308.
Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., & Smeets, P. M. (2004). Establishing relational responding in accordance with opposite as generalized operant behavior in young children. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 559-586.
Barnes-Holmes, Y., Barnes-Holmes, D., Smeets, P. M., Strand, P., & Friman, P. (2004). Establishing relational responding in accordance with more-than and less-than as generalized operant behavior in young children. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 531-558.
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Dymond, S., & Barnes, D. (1994). A transfer of self-discrimination response functions through equivalence relations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 62, 251-267.
Dymond, S., & Barnes, D. (1995). A transformation of self-discrimination response functions in accordance with the arbitrarily applicable relations of sameness, more-than, and less-than. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64, 163-184.
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McHugh, L., Barnes-Holmes, Y., & Barnes-Holmes, D. (2004). An RFT account of the development of complex cognitive phenomena: Perspective-taking, false belief understanding and deception. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 303-324
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Aron and Aron (1997) formulated the self-expansion model of motivation and cognition. According to this model, individuals are fundamentally motivated to extend their resources and attributes, primilary to achieve future goals (Aron & Aron, 1986& 1996, 1997). Critically, close relationships afford individuals with the opportunity to expand their resources and attributes. That is, individuals assimilate the resources and attributes of romantic partners, close friends, or some relatives into their own self concept. For example, if their partner is extraverted, they perceive this attribute as part of their own repetoire.
One of the key implications of this model is that individuals will seek relationships with someone who demonstrates a profile of resources or attributes that departs from their own qualities.
The inclusion of other in the self scale was designed to measure the extent to which individuals feel their identity overlaps with another person (see Aron, Aron, & Smollan, 1992). This overlap reflects the extent to which individuals feel close to another person. Seven pairs of circles are presented, each overlapping to different degrees, from no overlap to complete overlap. Participants specify the pair of circles that most closely represents the extent to which they feel they overlap with another person (for an example of this application, see Fitzsimons & Shah, 2008).
Aron, A., & Aron, E. (1986).Love and the expansion of self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction
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Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Smollan, D. (1992). Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 596-612.
Aron, A., Aron, E. N., Tudor, M., & Nelson, G. (1991). Close relationships as including other in the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 241-253.
Fitzsimons, G. M, & Shah, J. Y. (2008). How goal instrumentality shapes relationship evaluations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 319-337.
Several scholars argue that perception and action are represented in overlapping schemas
(Dijksterhuis & Bargh, 2001& Prinz, 1990). For example, the schema associated with elderly individuals guides both the perception of a person as well as responses towards this person. When this schema is activated, attention is directed towards features that characterize elderly individuals--grey hair, facial wrinkles, impaired hearing, wise aphorisms, slow movement, and so forth. In addition, behaviors that are often enacted in response to elderly individuals, such as speaking loudly or moving slowly, are also primed and thus more likely to be emitted.
Many studies have shown that perceptual features that activate a specific schema can also affect the behaviors of individuals. Indeed, many studies have shown that features that relate to the elderly stereotype tend to evoke behaviors that also relate to this stereotype. For example, Kawakami, Dovidio, and Dijksterhuis (2003) showed that photographs of elderly individuals promoted the expression of conservative attitudes.
Other studies have observed a similar pattern of findings with other perceptual and motor features of elderly individuals. In the study conducted by Banfield, Pendry, Mewse, and Edwards (2003), for example, some participants were exposed to words that exemplify elderly individuals, such as "grey" or "old". Incidental exposure to these words increased the likelihood that participants would subsequently walk more slowly.
Mussweiler (2006) showed that actions associated with specific schemas can also affect perception. For example, in this study, some participants were encouraged to move slowly, which putatively activates a schema associated with the elderly. These participants were especially likely to judge another person to be forgetful--a trait that is stereotypically prevalent in elderly individuals.
Banfield, J. F., Pendry, L. F., Mewse, A. J., & Edwards, M. G. (2003). The effects of an elderly stereotype prime on reaching and grasping actions.Social Cognition
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Chartrand, T. L., & Bargh, J. A. (1999). The Chameleon effect: The perception-behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 893-910.
Chartrand, T. L., & Bargh, J. A. (2002). Nonconscious motivations: Their activation, operation, and consequences. In A. Tesser & D. Stapel (Eds.), Self and motivation: Emerging psychological perspectives (pp. 13-41). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chartrand, T. L., Van Baaren, R. B., & Bargh, J. A. (2006). Linking automatic evaluations to emotion and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 70-77.
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Dijksterhuis, A., & van Knippenberg, A. (1998). The relation between perception and behavior or how to win a game of Trivial Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 865-877.
Fitzsimons, G. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2003). Thinking of you: Nonconscious pursuit of interpersonal goals associated with relationship partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 148-163.
Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J. F., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). Effect of social category priming on personal attitudes.Psychological Science
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Mussweiler, T. (2006). Doing is for thinking: Stereotype activation by stereotypic movements. Psychological Science, 17, 17-21.
Prinz, W. (1990). A common coding approach to perception and action. In O. Neumann & W. Prinz (Eds.), Relationships between perception and action: Current approaches (pp. 167-201). Berlin: Springer.
Last Update: 5/30/2016